A type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. Historically, the term referred to a drink brewed without hops. There are many types of ales, including pale ale, brown ale, Indian pale ale (IPA), and more.

Apple Juice

A fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting expelled juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate.


An alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented malt flavored with hops. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavors and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavoring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops.


American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made primarily from corn. Must be aged in new, charred oak barrels. It can be made in any state in the U.S. though Kentucky ismost famous for it.

Coffee (black)

Black coffee may refer to: Coffee, served as a beverage without cream or milk, and often without sugar as well.


A brown carbonated drink that is flavored with an extract of cola nuts, or with a similar flavoring. Most contain caffeine. Most modern colas contain caramel color, and are sweetened with sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup.

Cranberry Juice

Juice made by squeezing the fruit.


A clear alcoholic liquor distilled from either grain, malt or juniper berries.


Fermented, slightly alcoholic, lightly effervescent, sweetened black or green tea drink commonly consumed for its supposed health benefits.


Type of beer conditioned at low temperatures. The term may also be used as a verb to describe the cold-conditioning process. Lagers can be pale, amber, or dark. Pale lager is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer.

Milk (Almond)

Plant milk manufactured from almonds with a creamy texture and nutty flavor, although some types or brands are flavored in imitation of dairy milk.

Milk (Cashew)

Non-dairy milk, which means it contains no lactose. In its most basic form, it’s made from filtered water and cashews. Cashew milk is easily digested by most folks who are lactose intolerant.

Milk (Coconut)

Opaque, milky-white liquid extracted from the grated pulp of mature coconuts. The opacity and rich taste of coconut milk is due to its high oil content, most of which is saturated fat.

Milk (Rice)

Plant milk made from rice. Commercial rice milk is typically manufactured using brown rice and brown rice syrup, and may be sweetened using sugar or sugar substitutes, and flavored by common ingredients, such as vanilla.

Milk (Soy)

Plant-based drink produced by soaking and grinding soybeans, boiling the mixture, and filtering out remaining particulates.

Orange Juice

Juice made by squeezing the fruit sometimes with additives.

Pineapple Juice

Juice made by squeezing the pineapple fruit.

Pomegranate Juice

Made from the fruit of the pomegranate. It is used in cooking both as a fresh juice and as a concentrated syrup.


A distilled alcoholic drink made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. Rums are produced in various grades. Light rums are commonly used in cocktails, whereas “golden” and “dark” rums were typically consumed straight or neat, on the rocks, or used for cooking, but are now commonly consumed with mixers. Premium rums are also available, made to be consumed either straight or iced.


Italian anise-flavored, usually colorless, liqueur. Its most common variety is often referred to as white sambuca to differentiate it from other varieties that are deep blue in color (black sambuca) or bright red (red sambuca).


Malt whisky or grain whisky, made in Scotland. Made from only water and malted barley.

Tea (Black)

More oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas. Black tea is generally stronger in flavor than the less oxidized teas. Also made from the Camellia Sinensis plant. The type tested for does not include milk or cream.

Tea (Chamomile)

The plant is used to flavor foods, in herbal teas, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep.

Tea (Earl Grey)

A tea blend which has been flavored with the addition of oil of bergamot.

Tea (Green)

Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia Sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong and black tea. A brewed green tea is typically green, yellow or light brown in color, and its flavor profile can range from grass-like and toasted (pan fired) to vegetal, sweet and seaweed-like (steamed). If brewed correctly, most green tea should be quite light in color and only mildly astringent.

Tea (Jasmine)

A tea scented with aroma from jasmine blossoms to make a scented tea. Typically, jasmine tea has green tea as the tea base; however, white tea and black tea are also used. The resulting flavor of jasmine tea is subtly sweet and highly fragrant.

Tea (Oolong)

A traditional semi-oxidized Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) produced through a process including withering the plant under strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. Contains caffeine.

Tea (Rooibos)

The tea has a taste and color somewhat similar to hibiscus tea, or an earthy flavor like yerba mate. Does not contain caffeine.

Tea (Yerba Mate)

A naturally caffeinated tea. Brewed from the naturally caffeinated and nourishing leaves of the species of holly native to the South American Atlantic rainforest (Ilex paraguariensis), it contains 24 vitamins and minerals, 15 amino acids, and abundant polyphenols.


A regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant. The white version of tequila, known as silver tequila, is the product obtained without a or with very short aging process. Gold tequila is usually silver tequila with the addition of grain alcohols and caramel color, however, some higher end gold tequilas may be a blend of silver and reposado. The aging process generally imparts a golden color.


A distilled alcoholic beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, vodka is made through the distillation of cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented.


Type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains (which may be malted) are used for different varieties, including barley, corn, rye, and wheat. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, generally made of charred white oak.

Wine (Red)

Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines.

Wine (White)

Wine that is fermented without skin contact. The colour can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold. It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any colour.



The liquid left behind after churning butter out of cultured cream. Buttermilk can be drunk straight, and it can also be used in cooking.

Cheese (Blue)

General classification of cheese that have cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue mold.

Cheese (Brie)

Soft cow’s-milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated. It is pale in color with a slight grayish tinge under a rind of white mould. The rind is typically eaten, with its flavor depending largely upon the ingredients used and its manufacturing environment.

Cheese (Camembert)

Moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow’s milk cheese.

Cheese (Cheddar)

A kind of firm smooth yellow cheese, originally made in Cheddar in southwestern England.

Cheese (Cottage)

Fresh cheese curd product with a mild flavor. In the past, it was known as “curds and whey.”

Cheese (Feta)

Brined curd white cheese made in Greece from sheep milk or from a mixture of sheep and goat milk. It is a crumbly aged cheese, commonly produced in blocks, and has a slightly grainy texture.

Cheese (Goat)

Cheese made from goat’s milk.

Cheese (Gouda)

Mild, yellow cheese, originating from the Netherlands, made from cow’s milk.

Cheese (Mozzarella)

Traditionally southern Italian cheese made from Italian buffalo’s milk by the pasta filata method.

Cheese (Muenster)

Semi-soft cheese from the United States. Muenster is pale in color and smooth in texture with an orange rind.

Cheese (Parmesan)

An Italian hard, granular cheese that is produced from cow’s milk and has aged 12-36 months.

Cheese (Pepper Jack)

Also known as Monterey Jack, an American white, semi-hard cheese made using cow’s milk. It is noted for its mild flavor and slight sweetness.

Cheese (Provolone)

Semi-hard cheese with taste varying greatly from provolone piccante. It’s sweet with. a very mild taste.

Cheese (Ricotta)

Italian whey cheese made from sheep, cow, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses. Like other whey cheeses, it is made by coagulating the proteins that remain after the casein has been used to make cheese, notably albumin and globulin.

Cheese (Swiss)

American version of the Swiss Emmental and is known for being shiny, pale yellow. While it has a firmer texture than baby Swiss, its flavour is mild, sweet and nut-like.


Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called “separators”.

Cream Cheese

A soft, usually mild-tasting fresh cheese made from milk and cream. Stabilizers such as carob bean gum and carrageenan are typically added in industrial production.


A fermented milk drink similar to a thin yogurt that is made from kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture.


A sugar present in milk. It is a disaccharide containing glucose and galactose units.

Milk (Boiled)

Milk which has been heated to boiling point.

Milk (Condensed)

Usually made from cow’s milk by removing water. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.

Milk (Condensed)

Usually made from cow’s milk by removing water. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.

Milk (Cow)

Milk obtained from dairy cows.

Milk (Evaporated)

Shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing since the added sugar inhibits bacterial growth.

Milk (Goat)

Milk from the goat.

Milk (Sheep)

Milk from the sheep.

Sour Cream

A dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, which is called souring. Used as a topping for baked potatoes. It is used as the base for some creamy salad dressings and can also be used in baking, added to the mix for cakes, cookies, American-style biscuits, doughnuts and scones. It can be eaten as a dessert, with fruits or berries and sugar topping.


Avocado Oil

Edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea americana. As a food oil, it is used as an ingredient in other dishes, and as a cooking oil. It is also used for lubrication and in cosmetics, where it is valued for its supposed regenerative and moisturizing properties.


A dairy product with high butterfat content. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water. Most frequently made from cow’s milk, but it can be made from another mammal’s milk.

Canola Oil

Vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid. It’s from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family Brassicaceae.

Coconut Oil

The fatty oil obtained from the coconut and used in candies, confections and in cosmetics.

Cod Liver Oil

Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish. Cod liver oil for human consumption is pale and straw colored, with a mild flavor. As with most fish oils, it contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

Corn Oil

Extracted from the germ of corn. Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil a valuable frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines.

Flaxseed Oil

Also known as Linseed oil or flax pil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant. The oil is obtained by pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Linseed oil is a drying oil, meaning it can polymerize into a solid form.


Composed almost entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats. It is also rich in oxidized cholesterol: 259 μg/g, or 12.3% of total cholesterol. Ghee is also sometimes called desi (country-made) ghee or asli (genuine) ghee.

Grapeseed Oil

Pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.

Hemp Seed Oil

Edible oil that contains 76% as polyunsaturated fat, including omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA, 54%) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 3%), and omega-3 fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 17%) and stearidonic acid (2%).

Olive Oil

A liquid fat obtained from olives.

Peanut Oil

Known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil has a strong peanut flavor and aroma. It is often used in American, Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, both for general cooking, and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor.

Peppermint Oil

An essential oil, known for giving a cool feel and calming effect on the body.

Pumpkin Seed Oil

Polyunsaturated fat, specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Research has shown that these essential fatty acids can help raise HDL (good) cholesterol, improve the ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol, and prevent cardiovascular disease.

Sesame Oil

Edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds. Besides being used as a cooking oil, it is used as a flavor enhancer in many cuisines, having a distinctive nutty aroma and taste.

Sunflower Oil

The non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower. Refined sunflower oil is used for low-to-extremely-high-temperature cooking. As a frying oil, it behaves as a typical vegetable triglyceride. Unrefined sunflower oil is a traditional salad dressing in Eastern European cuisines. Sunflower oil is also an ingredient in sunflower butter. Can be used for cooking snack foods, such as potato chips or French fries, may use sunflower oil.

Vegetable Oil

Fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Can be consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food or can be heated and used to cook other foods (not sure if. right definition. says vegatable fat in out sheet -Mel).


Acai Berry

A superfood that can be eaten whole or juiced; This fruit is typically an inch-long and reddish-purple in color. It comes from the acai palm tree, which is native to Central and South America.

Apple (Braeburn)

A cultivar of apple that is firm to the touch with a red/orange vertical streaky appearance on a yellow/green background. Its color intensity varies with different growing conditions.

Apple (Granny Smith)

Type of apple. The tree is thought to be a hybrid of Malus sylvestris, the European wild apple, with the domesticated apple Malus pumila as the polleniser.

Apple (Golden Delicious)

Type of apple. A large, yellowish-green skinned cultivar and very sweet to the taste. It is prone to bruising and shriveling, so it needs careful handling and storage. It is a favorite for salads, apple sauce, and apple butter.

Apple (Gala)

Type of apple. Gala apples are non-uniform in color, usually vertically striped or mottled, with overall orange color. They are sweet, fine textured, and aromatic,[1] can be added to salads, cooked, or eaten raw, and are especially suitable for creating sauces.

Apple (Fuji)

Type of apple. They have a dense flesh that is sweeter and crisper than many other apple cultivars, making them popular with consumers around the world.

Apple (Pink Lady)

Also called a Cripps pink apple. They have a crunchy texture and a tart taste with a sweet finish.

Apple (Jazz)

Type of apple. It is hard and crisp but juicy. The color is flushes of red and maroon over shades of green, yellow and orange.


A juicy, soft fruit. They are orange-yellow in color. The flesh is usually firm and not very juicy. Its taste can range from sweet to tart. The single seed is enclosed in a hard, stony shell, often called a “stone” or “kernel”, with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side.


They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Often eaten in salads, dips and cooking.


The fruit has distinctive ridges running down its sides (usually five but can occasionally vary); when cut in cross-section, it resembles a star, hence its name. The entire fruit is edible and is usually eaten out of hand. They may also be used in cooking and can be made into relishes, preserves, and juice drinks.


Sweet melon, or spanspek is a melon that is a variety of the muskmelon species from the family Cucurbitaceae.


The small sweet blue-black edible berry of the blueberry plant. Can be eaten raw, cooked, as jam, in muffins, and more.


Edible soft fruit. Often purple-black. They contain numerous seeds. When cooked, they become softer.


Very small, dark blue berries. They are different from North American blueberries, although the species are closely related. Bilberry are non-climacteric fruits with a smooth, circular outline at the end opposite the stalk, whereas blueberries retain persistent sepals there, leaving a rough, star-shaped pattern of five flaps. Bilberries grow singly or in pairs rather than in clusters, as blueberries do, and blueberries have more evergreen leaves. Bilberries are dark in color, and usually appear near black with a slight shade of purple.


The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe.


Very small, red colored fruit. Fresh cranberries are hard, sour, and bitter.


A small stone fruit, or drupe, that belongs to the same family as apricots, peaches, and plums.


A citrus fruit hybrid between a willowleaf mandarin orange (C. × deliciosa) and a sweet orange (C. × sinensis), named for its late 19th-century discoverer. The exterior is a deep orange colour with a smooth, glossy appearance.


The inner flesh of the mature seed forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called “coconut milk” in the literature, and when immature, may be harvested for their potable “coconut water”, also called “coconut juice”.


A soft pear-shaped fruit with sweet dark flesh and many small seeds, eaten fresh or dried.


Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes.

Grapefruit (White)

Has a bright yellow rind when ripe. Very juicy.

Grapefruit (Pink)

Large, round citrus fruit with edible flesh. The taste ranges from highly acidic and somewhat sour, to sweet and tart.

Goji Berries

Looks like a dried cranberry. A Goji or wolfberry, is the fruit of either Lycium barbarum or Lycium chinense, two closely related species of boxthorn in the nightshade family.

Galia Melon

They have a rounded shape, a dense netting of rough lines on the skin, and become yellow at full maturity; they are sweet and aromatic, with a special aroma and flavor.

Grapes (Red)

Can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, grape seed oil, and red wine.

Grapes (White)

Can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, grape seed oil, and white wine.


An edible, pale orange tropical fruit with pink juicy flesh and a strong sweet aroma.

Olives (Black)

Classified as fruit because they’re formed from the ovary of the olive flower, and they’re seed-bearing structures. Black olives are picked while ripe which is when the color has turned from green to black. They are a great source of vitamin E and impede this oxidation of cholesterol.


Fruit with edible flesh. Often eaten and used in cooking.


Citrus fruit, which is typically round, green in color, 3–6 centimetres in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.


Edible fruit also called a Chinese gooseberry. It has a fibrous, dull greenish-brown skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds.


Edible fruit also called a Chinese gooseberry. It has a fibrous, dull greenish-brown skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds.

Honeydew Melon

Popular variety of melon with yellow skin and edible, white flesh.

Olives (Green)

Classified as fruit because they’re formed from the ovary of the olive flower. Green olives are picked before ripening. Green olives are denser, firmer and more bitter than black olives.


Round, sweet stone fruit with juicy flesh.


Tropical fruit shaped like an elongated melon, with edible orange flesh and small black seeds.


A citrus fruit. Round with orange skin and edible flesh.


A partially dried grape. Raisin varieties depend on the type of grape used and are made in a variety of sizes and colors including green, black, brown, blue, purple, and yellow.


A plum preserved by drying, having a black, wrinkled appearance.


Plantains are members of the banana family, but they are starchier and lower in sugar, which means that when they are ripe, they will still be green in color. If you get them when they are overripe, they may have started to turn yellow or black. While a banana makes a great, raw on-the-go-snack, plantains aren’t usually eaten raw because of the high starch content.


A juicy, edible tropical fruit somewhat resembling a pine cone: it consists of the fleshy inflorescence of a collective fruit developed from a spike of flowers. The fibrous flesh of pineapple is yellow in color and has a vibrant tropical flavor that balances the tastes of sweet and tart. Typically eaten raw but can also be grilled or a pizza topping.


A sweet yellowish- or brownish-green edible fruit that is typically narrow at the stalk and wider toward the base, with sweet, slightly gritty flesh.


A medium size fruit that contains many small red seeds that can be eaten.


Oval, fleshy stone fruit. Small and often red or purple in color. Plums can be used raw or in the form of juices, jellies, marmalades and cakes.


A seeded fruit with a bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, juice, pies, ice creams, milkshakes, and chocolates.


An edible soft fruit related to the blackberry, consisting of a cluster of reddish-pink drupelets.


A group of orange-colored citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange. The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier, Morocco, described as a mandarin variety.


A type of melon. Watermelons are a sweet, popular fruit of summer, usually consumed fresh in slices, diced in mixed fruit salads, or as juice.

Tomatoes (cooked)

The cooked form of the tomato fruit. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish.

Tomatoes (Raw)

The cooked form of the tomato fruit. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish.



A cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants. Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweed.


A member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

Bread (Ezekiel)

It’s as healthy as a bread gets. It’s a type of sprouted bread, made from a variety of whole grains and legumes that have started germinating (sprouting). Compared to white bread, which is made of refined wheat flour, Ezekiel bread is much richer in healthy nutrients and fiber.

Bread (Rye)

A type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat flour. It is higher in fiber than white bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor.

Bread (Sourdough)

Made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast. Sourdough bread has a more sour taste and better inherent keeping qualities than breads made with baker’s yeast, due to the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli.

Bread (Wheat)

Made from whole wheat flour so it is richer in vitamins and minerals since it is less refined.

Bread (White)

Made from wheat flour from which the bran and the germ layers have been removed (and set aside) from the whole wheatberry as part of the flour grinding or milling process, producing a light-colored flour. The flour used in white breads are bleached further—by the use of chemicals such as potassium bromate, azodicarbonamide, or chlorine dioxide gas to remove any slight, natural yellow shade and make its baking properties more predictable.


Grain-like seed. Does not contain gluten. Can be made into a flour and used in many items. Can be made into noodles, rice, beers, and more.

Bulgar Wheat

Cereal food made from the cracked parboiled groats of several different wheat species.

Corn Flour (Maize)

Maize flour is the entire corn kernel milled into flour.


Tiny pasta made of wheat or barley. Although couscous was traditionally hand-rolled, these days it’s made by machine: Coarsely-ground durum wheat (semolina) is moistened and tossed with fine wheat flour until it forms tiny, round balls.


Composed of the grains of certain wheat species, sold dried, and prepared by cooking in water until soft.


Also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world.


Cereal food made from green durum wheat that is roasted and rubbed to create its flavour.


Found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).


A fast-growing cereal plant that is widely grown in warm countries and regions with poor soils. The numerous small seeds are used to make flour or alcoholic drinks.


A species of cereal grain grown for its seed. Oats have numerous uses in foods; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola.


A herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass like wheat or rice, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. It’s nutty and fresh, and it has a fine, fluffy texture very similar to couscous. Sometimes served as a side as an alternative to pasta or rice.

Rice (Brown)

Whole-grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed; white rice is the same grain with the hull, bran layer, and cereal germ removed.

Rice (White)

Milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. This alters the flavor, texture and appearance of the rice and helps prevent spoilage and extend its storage life. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.

Rice (Wild)

Are four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain that can be harvested from them. The grain was historically gathered and eaten in North America and China. While now a delicacy in North America, the grain is eaten less in China, where the plant’s stem is used as a vegetable.


Grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (genus Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, bread, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder.


Cereal grain that grows tall like corn, and it is used for a lot more than just sweetening. First and foremost, in the United States, sorghum is used as livestock feed and turned into ethanol. It’s a popular crop to grow within the drier regions of the States because it is drought resistant.


Known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BCE.


About the size of a poppy seed—that comes in a variety of colors, from white and red to dark brown. … Ground into flour, teff is used to make the traditional bread, injera: a flat, pancake-like, fermented bread that complements their exotic spices.

Wheat (Ground)

The ground form of a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

Wheat (Whole Grain)

A grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

Wheat Berry

A whole wheat kernel, composed of the bran, germ, and endosperm. Botanically, it is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat berries have a tan to reddish-brown color and are available as either a hard or soft processed grain.



Arrowroot is an easily digested starch extracted from the roots of the arrowroot plant, Maranta arundinacea. The starch is used as a thickener in many foods such as puddings and sauces, and is also used in cookies and other baked goods. It is extremely bland, making it suitable for neutral diets, especially for people who are feeling nauseous. The starch is not terribly nutritious, but some people believe that it helps to soothe upset stomachs, which is why many health food stores carry arrowroot cookies.

Chocolate (Dark)

Form of chocolate containing cocoa solids, cocoa butter and sugar, without the milk found in milk chocolate.


The pigment that colour green the leaves of vegetables. Vegetables rich in chlorophyll include spinach, beet tops, broccoli, collard greens, Tuscan kale, dandelion, chicory, turnip greens, catalogna chicory, agretto and spirulina algae.


Genus of single-celled green algae belonging to the division Chlorophyta. Chlorella has been considered as a potential source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency can, in theory, reach 8%, which exceeds that of other highly efficient crops such as sugar cane.


A brown floury powder extracted from the carob bean used as a substitute for chocolate.

Chocolate (Milk)

Solid chocolate made with the addition of milk.


It is in almost every gummy confectionery and items like marshmallow, ice cream and even low-fat yogurt.

Chocolate (White)

Chocolate confection made from cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids. White chocolate does not contain cocoa solids, which are found in other types of chocolate. It is characterized by a pale ivory color.


Large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales. There are about 30 different genera. Despite its appearance, kelp is not a plant; it is a heterokont. Kelp grows in “underwater forests” in shallow oceans.


Hemp is the non THC variety of the Cannabis Sativa plant.


Sauce used as a condiment. Although original recipes used egg whites, mushrooms, oysters, grapes, mussels, or walnuts, among other ingredients, the unmodified modern recipe refers to tomato-based ketchup.


Edible seaweed species of the red algae genus Pyropia, including P. yezoensis and P. tenera. It has a strong and distinctive flavor. It is used chiefly in Japanese cuisine as an ingredient to wrap rolls of sushi or onigiri, in which case the term refers to the dried sheets.


Hot tasting yellow paste. Eaten and used in cooking.

Nutritional Yeast

Deactivated yeast, often a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is sold commercially as a food product. It is sold in the form of yellow flakes, granules or powder.

Oyster Sauce

Usually dark brown, a condiment made from oyster extracts.


Condiment made from toasted ground hulled sesame. It is served by itself or as a major ingredient in hummus, baba ghanoush, and halva. Tahini is used in the cuisines of the Eastern Mediterranean, the South Caucasus, and the Middle East, as well as parts of North Africa.

Soy Sauce

A liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, and brine. Used in cooking and as a condiment.


Biomass of cyanobacteria that can be consumed by humans and animals. The two species are Arthrospira platensis and A. maxima. Cultivated worldwide, Arthrospira is used as a dietary supplement or whole food. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries.

Vinegar (Malt)

Malt vinegar is a dark, flavorful vinegar that’s made by malting barley, making the barley into beer, and then turning that beer into vinegar. Its bold, unique flavor makes it a great condiment on French fries or fish and chips—as well as a tasty addition to pickling mixtures.


Substance from vanilla pods, often used as flavoring. Can be used as the whole pod, extract, sugar, or powder.

Vinegar (Clear)

An aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Usually the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling.


Species of edible seaweed, a type of marine algae, and a sea vegetable. It has a subtly sweet, but distinctive and strong flavour and texture. It is most often served in soups and salads.


A microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding and are capable of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Used in bread, beer, and wine.


A starchy substance in the form of hard white grains, obtained from cassava and used in cooking for puddings and other dishes.

Vinegar (Apple Cider)

A vinegar made from fermented apple juice. Used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste.



An edible, oval nut with a woody shell. Almonds can be eaten raw or cooked. They can be made into oils, milk, butter, or flour as an alternative to dairy or gluten products.

Brazil Nuts

A large, three-sided South American nut. Often found in mixed nuts.

Cashew Nuts

Edible kidney shaped nut. Rich in oil and protein. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter.


A glossy brown nut that may be roasted and eaten. Chestnuts can be dried and milled into flour, which can then be used to prepare breads, cakes, pies, pancakes, pastas, polenta, or used as thickener for stews, soups, and sauces.

Dry Roasted Peanuts

The popular nut – roasted. Dry roasting changes the chemistry of proteins in the food, changing their flavor, and enhances the scent and taste of some spices.


Small, brown edible nut from the hazel tree. Used in confectionery to make praline, and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur. Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavored and used as a cooking oil.

Macadamia Nuts

Edible nut from the macadamia tree.


Very commonly eaten nut. Eaten raw, also used in cooking.


Edible, smooth brown nut from the pecan tree.

Pine Nuts

The edible seed from various pine trees.


A member of the cashew family. The kernels are often eaten whole, either fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in pistachio ice cream, kulfi, spumoni, historically in Neapolitan ice cream, pistachio butter, pistachio paste, and confections.

Sunflower Seeds

Each variety has its own unique levels of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats.


Walnut meats are available in two forms; in their shells or shelled. The meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. Walnuts are often candied and may be used as an ingredient in other foods. Walnuts are also popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, and walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods.



Known as “whey protein.” It is the albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey. It is a protein that regulates the production of lactose in the milk. Lactalbumin is found in the milk of many mammals, including humans and cows. Used in cheeses, cream, butter, and other products that contain real dairy.


Cured meat from the sides and belly of a pig, having distinct strips of fat and typically served in thin slices. Eaten cooked. Items can be flavored with bacon as well.


The flesh of different cuts of cattle.

Beef Jerky

A lean cut of meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before enough moisture has been removed. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Some product manufacturers finely grind meat, mix in seasonings, and press the meat-paste into flat shapes prior to drying.


A major whey protein of cow and sheep’s milk, and is also present in many other mammalian species; a notable exception being humans. Used in butter, cheeses, cream, and more.


A bird used for meat or eggs. Most common type of poultry.


Large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.

Egg White

The clear, viscous substance surrounding the egg yolk. Turns white when cooked or beaten.


A water bird, known for its short legs and webbed feet. Duck meat is derived primarily from the breasts and legs of ducks. The meat of the legs is darker and somewhat fattier than the meat of the breasts, although the breast meat is darker than the breast meat of a chicken or a turkey. Being waterfowl, ducks have a layer of heat-insulating subcutaneous fat between the skin and the meat.


A species of duck. The meat of the bird is widely eaten. It is dark meat, with an intense flavor more often compared to beef than chicken.


A domesticated animal. The flesh of this animal can be eaten. It is savory and less sweet than beef but slightly sweeter than lamb. It can be prepared in a variety of ways, such as being stewed, curried, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, or made into sausage.

Egg Yolk

The yellow part of an egg.

Liver (Beef)

Organ/liver of a cow.


Flesh of a young sheep.

Liver (Chicken)

Organ/liver of a chicken.

Pea Protein

Type of powder. A food with a neutral taste that is used in dairy alternatives such as cheeses and yogurt. It is extracted from the yellow pea, Pisum sativum, and has a typical legume amino acid profile.


The culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. Eaten cooked or preserved.


Sold as both a cooking ingredient and as the meat substitute used in a range of prepackaged meals.


Traditional Indonesian soy product, that is made from fermented soybeans. It is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form.


A small mammal. A lean source of high-quality protein.


The protein derived from soybeans, used as a replacement for animal protein in foods and fodder. Uses include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto, and tempeh.


Vegan meat substitute made entirely out of hydrated gluten, the main protein found in wheat. It is sometimes also called wheat gluten, wheat meat, wheat protein or just gluten. Seitan is a vegan meat substitute made by rinsing wheat dough to remove the starch.


Meat from a deer. Can be eaten as steaks, tenderloin, roasts, sausages, jerky and minced meat. It has a flavor reminiscent of beef, but is richer and can have a gamey note.


Known as bean curd, is a food prepared by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into solid white blocks of varying softness; it can be silken, soft, firm, or extra firm. Main ingredient is Soy milk.

Textured Vegetable Protein

Texturized vegetable protein, also known as textured soy protein, soy meat, or soya chunks is a defatted soy flour product, a by-product of extracting soybean oil. It is often used as a meat analogue or meat extender. It is quick to cook, with a protein content comparable to certain meats.


Flesh of a baby calf. Often eaten in the form of cutlets.


Flesh from the turkey bird. Can be eaten many ways.



A small shoaling fish of commercial importance as a food fish and as bait. It is strongly flavored and is usually preserved in salt and oil. Sometimes used in Worcestershire sauce, Barbecue sauces made with Worcestershire, Caesar salad and Caesar dressing.


An edible mollusk. Clams can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried. They can also be made into clam chowder, clams casino, Clam cakes, stuffies, or they can be cooked using hot rocks and seaweed in a New England clam bake.


A large edible marine fish. Cod has a mild flavor and a dense, flaky, white flesh.


A crustacean with edible flesh. Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in many different ways all over the world. Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species, just the claws or legs are eaten.


Freshwater crustacean resembling a small lobster. Only a small portion of the body of a crayfish is eaten. In most prepared dishes, such as soups, bisques and étouffées, only the tail portion is served.


Edible slender fish. Often used in Japanese cuisines.


A flat-fish often boiled, deep-fried or grilled while fresh. Smoking is more difficult with halibut meat than it is with salmon, due to its ultra-low-fat content. Eaten fresh, the meat has a clean taste and requires little seasoning. Halibut is noted for its dense and firm texture.


Small, silvery fish. Widely eaten.


Large crustacean, flesh eaten cooked.


Frequently eaten fish. Greenish-blue in color.


Mollusk with a brown or purplish-black shell that is sometimes eaten with pasta and sauce.


Oysters can be eaten on the half shell, raw, smoked, boiled, baked, fried, roasted, stewed, canned, pickled, steamed, or broiled, or used in a variety of drinks. Eating can be as simple as opening the shell and eating the contents, including juice. Butter and salt are often added.


A right-eyed flounder belonging to the Pleuronectidae family. They are a commercially important flatfish which lives on the sandy bottoms of the European shelf. Typically cooked or smoked.


A large swimming crustacean.


A large, edible fish that is a popular game fish, much prized for its pink flesh. Salmon mature in the sea but migrate to freshwater streams to spawn. Classified as an oily fish.


A nutrient-rich, small, oily fish. Typically canned with oil.


A flat fish that has a mild, buttery, sweet flavor and versatility, and for its ease of filleting.


Small crustacean. Usually sold frozen. Eaten many ways.

Trout (Brown)

The brown trout is a relative of the Atlantic salmon, and is found in freshwater rivers and lakes throughout the European continent, North America, and the British Isles. Also known as sea trout, these fish are a favorite among anglers. A notoriously shy fish, numbers are carefully maintained by natural and artificial means. Other common names include the breac and the brownie.


A whitefish is a broad term that refers to a category of fish that generally live near the bottom of water sources, such a lakes, oceans, ponds, and aquariums. They are equipped to comfortably reside in close proximity to loose sand and debris. Due to being located near the bottom of water sources near sand, members of this fish category generally have a dry and flaky texture to their flesh when they are cooked and consumed, especially compared to fish who reside closer to the surface of the water and tend to have an oilier texture. Some common types of whitefish are cod, pollock, and halibut.


Saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a subgrouping of the Scombridae family. The Thunnini comprise 15 species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly.

Trout (Sea)

Anadromous brown trout are a silvery color with faint black spots. However, once they return to freshwater they quickly take on the normal coloration of resident brown trout in preparation for spawning. Sea trout kelts (post spawn) return to their silvery stage as they migrate back to saltwater. In freshwater the top of the trout is an olive color with brown and black spots with the ventral side being tan to yellow. The sides have many orange and red spots ringed with a light blue.



A flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean. It is often used in herbal medicine.


A tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia. It is a tender plant and is used in cuisines worldwide. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell. Basil is most commonly used fresh in recipes. In general, it is added at the last moment, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto—a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce.

Bay Leaf

An aromatic leaf commonly used in cooking. It can be whole or ground dried pieces of the plant. It comes from several plants. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood, vegetable dishes, and sauces.


Seeds used in breads, desserts, or other dishes.


Used as flavorings and cooking spices in both food and drink, and as a medicine. E. Cardamomum (green cardamom) is used as a spice, a masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked.


Herb from the fresh leaves of the coriander plant. Fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking.


An aromatic spice made from the peeled, dried, and rolled bark of a Southeast Asian tree. Used in cooking/baking.


Cloves are aromatic flower buds used as a spice. Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, and the Near and Middle East countries, lending flavor to meats, curries, and marinades, as well as fruit such as apples, pears or rhubarb. Cloves may be used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages, often combined with other ingredients such as lemon and sugar. They are a common element in spice blends such as pumpkin pie spice and speculoos spices.


An aromatic culinary herb. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste.


Fast growing, edible herb. Garden cress is added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor. It is also eaten as sprouts, and the fresh or dried seed pods can be used as a peppery seasoning (haloon).


Aromatic herb used for flavoring. Fresh and dried dill leaves are widely used as herbs in Europe and central Asia. Like caraway, the fernlike leaves of dill are aromatic and are used to flavor many foods such as gravlax (cured salmon) and other fish dishes, borscht and other soups, as well as pickles.

Curry (Green)

Considered the most popular curry in Thai cuisine. Green curry paste is traditionally made by pounding in a mortar green chillies, shallots, garlic, galangal, lemongrass, kaffir lime peel, cilantro roots (coriander), and cumin seeds, white peppercorns, shrimp paste and salt.


Aromatic seed used as a spice. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Cumin can be an ingredient in chili powder (often Tex-Mex or Mexican-style), and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, bahaarat, and is used to flavor numerous commercial food products.

Curry (Yellow)

Made from cumin, coriander, turmeric, fenugreek, garlic, salt, bay leaf, lemongrass, cayenne pepper, ginger, mace and cinnamon. It generally contains less chilli than other curries.

Curry (Red)

Popular Thai dish consisting of red curry paste cooked in coconut milk with meat added, such as chicken, beef, pork, duck or shrimp, or vegetarian protein source such as tofu.


Hot, fragrant spice. Used as a flavoring mainly but can be found chopped, powdered, preserved or candied.


Highly aromatic and flavorful herb used in cookery and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, and in soups and fish sauce.


An aromatic plant often used in cooking. It can be used fresh or dried. Fresh mint is usually preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem. The leaves have a warm, fresh, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste, and are used in teas, beverages, jellies, syrups, candies, and ice creams.


Traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and kōji and sometimes rice, barley, seaweed or other ingredients.


The hard, aromatic, almost spherical seed of a tropical tree. A very common spice related to mace. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider, mulled wine, and eggnog.


Flowering plant in the mint family. It is native to temperate Western and Southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region. Oregano is a perennial herb. Oregano is also known as Spanish thyme and wild marjoram.


A powdered spice with a deep orange-red color and a mildly pungent flavor, made from the dried and ground fruits of certain varieties of pepper.


A biennial plant with white flowers and aromatic leaves that are either crinkly or flat and used as a culinary herb and for garnishing food.

Pepper (Black)

Dried fruit from the pepper vine family of Piperaceae. Used whole as peppercorns or ground and used in cooking for spice / flavor.

Pepper (Red/Cayenne)

A spicy pepper. It is used in its fresh form, or as dried powder on seafood, all types of egg dishes (devilled eggs, omelettes, soufflés), meats and stews, casseroles, cheese dishes, hot sauces, and curries.


One of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods. It is used mostly in savory dishes, but also is used in some sweet dishes.

Salt (Table)

Used in many cuisines around the world, and it is often found in salt shakers on diners’ eating tables for their personal use on food. Salt is also an ingredient in many manufactured foods.

Salt (Sea)

A salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater. It is used as a seasoning in foods, cooking, cosmetics and for preserving food.

Salt (Pink Himalayan)

A rock salt (halite) from the Punjab, Pakistan. The salt often has a pinkish tint due to mineral impurities. It is primarily used as a food additive.


It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. Used in many different cuisines.


A woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. Fresh or dried rosemary can be added to soups, sandwiches, salads, dips, and even be used for making infused oil.


A low-growing aromatic plant of the mint family. The small leaves are used as a culinary herb and the plant yields a medicinal oil.


Sesame has one of the highest oil contents of any seed. With a rich, nutty flavor, it is a common ingredient in cuisines across the world. Like other nuts and foods, it can trigger allergic reactions in some people. Sometimes sold with the seed coat removed (decorticated); this variety is often present on top of baked goods in many countries.



A type of syrup, inaccurately known as agave nectar, is a sweetener commercially produced from several species of agave, including Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana.

E 420 Sorbit, Sorbit Syrup

A natural carbohydrate alcohol, present in many berries and fruits, e.g., apples, prunes, cherries and grapes. It is commercially produced from glucose (dextrose). Used in many bakery and confectionary products.

E 421 Mannite

A natural carbohydrate alcohol, present in many plants, e.g., conifers, seaweed and mushrooms. It is commercially produced from glucose (dextrose). Used as an Anti-caking agent, low-calorie sweetener, bulking agent, etc.

E 950 Acesulfame K

Can be up to x200 sweeter than natural sugar. It is stable at very high temperatures and so used in many bakery products. It is also often used in conjunction with aspartame. Used in chewing gum, yogurt, alcoholic drinks, and syrup.

E 951 Aspartame

Has a calorific value, the tiny amount needed to create a sweetened taste results in a negligible calorie content in the food product. Used in sweets, diet foods, and soft drinks.

E 952 Cyclamate

Approximately x30 sweeter than natural sugar. It is remains stable at high temperatures, which enables it to be used in cooked foods such as bakery products. Used in bakery products and diet foods.

E 953 Isomalt

Consists of sugar being converted to isomaltulose, then hydrogenated to form isomalt. Sweetener found in boiled sweets, toffee, lollipops, fudge, wafers, cough drops, throat lozenges, and a wide variety of other products.

E 954 Saccharin

Most widely used sugar substitute used in soft drinks, medicine, sweets, and toothpaste.

E 957 Thaumatin

A protein that originates from the tropical fruit, Thaumococcus danielli. It can be up to x2000 sweeter than sugar, although it conveys a slightly different and more slowly developing taste. Used in bread, fruit, and wine.

E 959 Neohesperdin DC

Produced by the hydrogenation of neohesperidine, which is found naturally in bitter oranges, and may be up to x1800 sweeter than sugar. Used in ice cream, diet foods, and yogurt.

E 965 Maltite, Maltite Syrup

A sugar alcohol which has a lower calorie content than sugar. Used in diet foods.

E 966 Lactite

A carbohydrate alcohol derived from lactose in whey (from milk). Used in bakery products, ice-cream, sugar-free and low-calorie foods, and chocolate.

E 967 Xylitol

A carbohydrate alcohol derived from corn, raspberries, lettuce and plums. Used in chewing gum, ice-cream, jam, and bakery products.


A sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called honeycombs.

Maple Syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.


Molasses or black treacle, is a viscous by-product of refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.


A sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana.

Sugar (Brown)

A sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content (natural brown sugar), or it is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar (commercial brown sugar).

Sugar (Cane)

Is any sugar derived from sugar cane. About two third of sugar comes from sugar cane.

Sugar (White)

Also called table sugar, granulated sugar or regular sugar. Made either of beet sugar or cane sugar, which has undergone a refining process.



A European plant resembling a thistle, cultivated for its large flower heads. Usually boiled or steamed before eating.

Beans (Edamame)

The immature soya bean – usually steamed in pod and eaten directly from the pod.

Beans (Black)

Classified as legumes. Also known as turtle beans because of their hard, shell-like appearance. Black beans are prized for their high protein and fiber content.

Bean Sprouts

Culinary vegetable grown by sprouting mung beans. They can be grown by placing and watering the sprouted beans in the shade until the roots grow long.

Aubergine (Eggplant)

Also known as eggplant. Often considered a vegetable, even though it is a berry by botanical definition. Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines.


A European plant resembling a thistle, cultivated for its large flower heads. Usually boiled or steamed before eating.

Beans (Chickpea)

Also called garbanzo beans, are a type of legume. The most common type has a round shape and a beige color. Chickpea seeds are high in protein.

Beans (Broad)

Small, flat beans. Green in color, also called fava beans. The beans with the outer seed coat removed, can be eaten raw or cooked. In young plants, the outer seed coat can be eaten, and in very young plants, the seed pod can be eaten.

Beans (White)

White beans come from the flowering plants of the legume family. Popular varieties include the navy bean (also called white pea bean, small white bean, Great Northern bean, Boston bean, Yankee bean or fagioli), which is small and cooks relatively quickly.

Beans (Lima)

Small, kidney shaped beans – grown in the pod. Although it is considered a legume and is a protein, it is used as a vegetable in cooking. Also known as a butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean.

Beans (Green)

Long, thin green in color. They are distinguished from the many other varieties of beans in that green beans are harvested and consumed with their enclosing pods, before the bean seeds inside have fully matured. They can be called French beans, string beans, snap beans, and snaps.

Beans (Red Kidney)

A variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is named for its visual resemblance in shape and color to a kidney. Used in many dishes and soups.

Beans (Pinto)

Most popular bean in Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States, and is most often eaten whole, or mashed and then refried.

Bell Pepper (Green) (Raw)

(Raw) Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter.

Bell Pepper (Green) (Cooked)

(Cooked) Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter.


(Beetroot) A dark red, rounded vegetable. Also known as table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. Other than as a food, beets have use as a food coloring and as a medicinal plant. Usually eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable.

Bell Pepper (Red) (Cooked)

(Cooked) Red bell peppers are simply ripened green peppers. The sweetest of bell peppers. Fully ripened, and they require more time to grow, resulting in their sweeter, fruitier flavor and higher price sticker. Red peppers pack the most nutrition, because they’ve been on the vine longest.

Bell Pepper (Orange) (Raw)

(Raw) Orange bell peppers has thick flesh and is much sweeter than the green, but it is not as sweet as the red ones.

Bell Pepper (Orange) (Cooked)

(Cooked) Orange bell peppers has thick flesh and is much sweeter than the green, but it is not as sweet as the red ones.

Bell Pepper (Red) (Raw)

(Raw) Red bell peppers are simply ripened green peppers. The sweetest of bell peppers. Fully ripened, and they require more time to grow, resulting in their sweeter, fruitier flavor and higher price sticker. Red peppers pack the most nutrition, because they’ve been on the vine longest.

Brussels Sprouts

Small, leafy green vegetables that typically look like miniature cabbages.

Broccoli (Cooked)

(Cooked) Edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.

Bell Pepper (Yellow) (Cooked)

(Cooked) Less bitter and more sweet than green peppers.

Bok Choy

Or pok choi is a type of Chinese cabbage. Chinensis varieties do not form heads and have green leaf blades with lighter bulbous bottoms instead, forming a cluster reminiscent of mustard greens.

Bell Pepper (Yellow) (Raw)

(Raw) Less bitter and more sweet than green peppers.

Broccoli (Raw)

(Raw) Edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable. Crunchy when raw and slightly bitter.

Cabbage (White) (Cooked)

(Cooked) Round and firm with tightly packed, pale-green leaves. Their sweet, mild taste makes them excellent in salads such as coleslaw.

Cabbage (Red) (Raw)

(Raw) Also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation. Its leaves are colored dark red/purple. However, the plant changes its color according to the pH value of the soil, due to a pigment belonging to anthocyanins.

Cabbage (Red) (Cooked)

(Cooked) Also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation. Its leaves are colored dark red/purple. However, the plant changes its color according to the pH value of the soil, due to a pigment belonging to anthocyanins.

Cabbage (White) (Raw)

(Raw) Round and firm with tightly packed, pale-green leaves. Their sweet, mild taste makes them excellent in salads such as coleslaw.


An edible Mediterranean plant whose bitter leaves may be blanched and used in salads.

Cauliflower (Cooked)

(Cooked) Cauliflower is a member of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, kale, and cabbage. Cauliflower has a compact head called a “curd,” which is composed of undeveloped flower buds. The curd averages 6 inches in diameter. The flower buds are attached to a central stalk, and when the buds bloom, cauliflower looks like a little tree.

Carrots (Cooked)

(Cooked) A root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.

Cassava Flour

Commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca, kappa kizhangu and aipim, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

Carrots (Raw)

(Raw) A root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.

Celery (Raw)

(Raw) Cultivated plant of the parsley family, with closely packed succulent leafstalks.

Celery (Cooked)

(Cooked) Cultivated plant of the parsley family, with closely packed succulent leafstalks.

Cauliflower (Raw)

(Raw) Cauliflower is a member of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, kale, and cabbage. Cauliflower has a compact head called a “curd,” which is composed of undeveloped flower buds. The curd averages 6 inches in diameter. The flower buds are attached to a central stalk, and when the buds bloom, cauliflower looks like a little tree.


Widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that bears cucumiform fruits that are used as vegetables. Cucembers have a mild, refreshing taste and a high water content. They are low in calories but high in many important vitamins and minerals.


A grain as well as a vegetable. It grows within a tall grass-like stalk and produces large kernels on a cob. The kernels of corn can range from white to yellow.

Horse Radish

Root vegetable used as a spice and prepared as a condiment. Potent flavor, hot, spicy, and peppery.

Garlic (Cooked)

(Cooked) A strong-smelling pungent-tasting bulb, used as a flavoring in cooking and in herbal medicine.

Greens (Collard)

Type of leafy green vegetable common in southern U.S. cooking. Collards feature dark green leaves with tough stems. Refers to certain loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea, the same species as many common vegetables, including cabbage and broccoli. Collard is part of the Acephala Group of the species, which includes kale and spring greens.

Garlic (Raw)

(Raw) A strong-smelling pungent-tasting bulb, used as a flavoring in cooking and in herbal medicine.

Greens (Mustard)

Related to kale, cabbage, and collard greens, they are the peppery leafy greens of the mustard plant and are used frequently in Chinese, Japanese, and Indian cooking. They have a spicy flavor that tastes very much like spicy mustard that develops as you chew.

Greens (Turnip)

Part of the cruciferous vegetable family, as are kale and broccoli. They are high in nutrients and low in calories. Their taste is also described as being similar to that of mustard greens, both having a signature sharp, spicy flavor.

Kale (Cooked)

(Cooked) Kale is a green, leafy, winter vegetable that is high in fiber.

Lettuce (Arugula)

Also known as rocket or roquette, are tender and bite-sized with a tangy flavor. Frequently eaten raw as a salad green but can also be enjoyed cooked.


A plant related to the onion, with flat overlapping leaves forming an elongated cylindrical bulb which together with the leaf bases is eaten as a vegetable.


A plant related to the onion, with flat overlapping leaves forming an elongated cylindrical bulb which together with the leaf bases is eaten as a vegetable.

Kale (Raw)

(Raw) Kale is a green, leafy, winter vegetable that is high in fiber.

Lettuce (Iceberg)

A lettuce of a variety having a dense round head of crisp pale leaves.

Lettuce (Green Leaf)

Curly leaves best suited for sandwiches and salads that are seeking a nutritious upgrade. It is an excellent source of vitamin A, which contributes to healthy eyes and skin.

Lettuce (Butter)

This type is a head lettuce with a loose arrangement of leaves, known for its sweet flavor and tender texture.

Lettuce (Chicory)

A mildly bitter type of lettuce popular in Italy and widely available in the USA. There are also cultivars with red stems, and sometimes white ones will show red streaks. Chicory is generally used raw to pep up salads with fairly heavy dressings but can also be cooked and will then be milder.

Lettuce (Escarole)

A variety of endive that has broad, bitter leaves.

Mushroom (Chestnut)

The same as a white button mushroom but it is a strain that grows just a bit browner instead of white giving it a tan colored top. They have a better flavor and texture than the palin white mushroom.

Mushroom (Button)

A small white mushroom in which the pileus has not yet expanded. It is the mot common consumed mushroom in the U.S.

Lettuce (Red Leaf)

Leafy vegetable in the daisy family. It resembles romaine lettuce except in its tips, which have a red or purple tinge. Red leaf lettuce is an excellent source of vitamin A.

Lettuce (Romaine)

A variety of lettuce that grows in a tall head of sturdy dark green leaves with firm ribs down their centers. Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat. Used as a common salad green, and is the usual lettuce used in Caesar salad. Can also be cooked.

Mushroom (Oyster)

A widely distributed edible fungus that has a grayish-brown, oyster-shaped cap and a very short or absent stem, growing on the wood of broadleaved trees and causing rot.

Mushroom (Portabella)

The largest type of mushroom. The mature version of cremini mushrooms harvested when they’re fully grown. These large, dark brown mushrooms have an open cap, with visible, deep brown gills on the underside. Unlike its younger counterpart, the portobello has had more time to grow, causing it to lose more of its moisture. Portobello mushrooms are not as watery as cremini and have a slightly more pronounced mushroom flavor. Can be consumed cooked or raw.

Mushroom (Shitake)

An edible mushroom native to East Asia. It is considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine. Can be eaten and used raw, dried, and cooked.


A vegetable also known as ladies’ fingers. Part of the mallow family. Okra leaves may be cooked in a similar way to the greens of beets or dandelions. The leaves are also eaten raw in salads. Okra seeds may be roasted and ground to form a caffeine-free substitute for coffee.

Onions (Cooked)

(Cooked) An edible bulb with a pungent taste and smell, composed of several concentric layers, used raw or in cooking.

Peas (Field)

Field peas or “dry peas” are marketed as a dry, shelled product for either human or livestock food, unlike the garden pea, which is marketed as a fresh or canned vegetable.

Peas (Black Eyed)

Subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot.

Onions (Raw)

(Raw) An edible bulb with a pungent taste and smell, composed of several concentric layers, used raw or in cooking.

Onions (Green)

Also known as Scallions, are vegetables of various Allium onion species. Scallions have a milder taste than most onions. A scallion is made up of a white base that has not fully developed into a bulb and long green stalks that resemble chives.

Pepper (Poblano)

Mild variety of chile pepper. They are a popular Mexican chili pepper, very dark green in color, ripening to dark red or brown.

Pepper (Cherry)

Large, red and green, pumpkin-shaped chili peppers. While other varieties of cherry peppers are hot, cherry peppers are characterized by their mild, sweet and aromatic flesh.

Pepper (Banana)

Medium-sized member of the chili pepper family that has a mild, tangy taste. While typically bright yellow, it is possible for them to change to green, red, or orange as they ripen. It is often pickled, stuffed or used as a raw ingredient in foods.

Peas (Garden)

Small, round and green seed. Eaten as a vegetable. The peas are sweet and may be eaten raw or cooked; these are the common peas that are sold shelled, canned, and frozen.

Pepper (Pepperoncini)

Also known as Tuscan Peppers, sweet Italian peppers, or golden Greek peppers. They look like banana peppers but pepperoncini peppers taste is mild, sweet, and slightly bitter. They are usually sold pickled.

Pepper (Habanero)

Hot variety of chili pepper, the smaller the pepper the hotter it gets. Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. The most common color variants are orange and red, but the fruit may also be white, brown, yellow, green, or purple.

Pepper (Jalapeno)

Medium-sized chile peppers with a mild to moderate amount of heat.

Spinach (Cooked)

(Cooked) It is a dark green leafy vegetable native to Southeast Asia tht is low in calories but packed in nutrients.

Potatoes (White)

Grown in cooler climates or seasons around the world. They are starchy, enlarged modified stems called tubers, which grow on short branches called stolons from the lower parts of potato plants.

Potatoes (Sweet)

A large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous root vegetable.

Pepper (Serrano)

A type of chili pepper that originated in the mountainous regions of the Mexican states of Puebla and Hidalgo. Serrano peppers are hotter than a jalapeno pepper, but not as spicy as a habanero.

Soy Bean

A species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.


Is a finely cut raw cabbage. It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor. fermented cabbage which is good has more complex taste than just sour. It is a bit spicy, a bit sweet, a bit salted.


A swollen pungent-tasting edible root, especially a variety which is small, spherical, and red, and eaten raw with salad.

Pumpkin Seed

The edible seed of a pumpkin. Typically, they are roasted and eaten as a snack or a salad topping.


A large rounded orange-yellow fruit with a thick rind and edible flesh. Can be boiled, steamed, roasted, or made into desserts.

Yuca (Cassava)

Edible root of the Cassava Plant.

Squash (Butternut)

A sweet, nutty taste similar to that of a pumpkin. It has tan-yellow skin and orange fleshy pulp with a compartment of seeds in the bottom. When ripe, it turns increasingly deep orange, and becomes sweeter and richer.

Spinach (Raw)

(Raw) It is a dark green leafy vegetable native to Southeast Asia tht is low in calories but packed in nutrients.


A rapidly growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plant native to Europe and Asia, and one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans. Used as a salad green with Romaine lettuce or fresh spinach, steamed and eaten as a vegetable, and in soups for a subtle, peppery flavor.

Squash (Spaghetti)

An edible squash of a variety with slightly stringy flesh which when cooked has a texture and appearance like that of spaghetti.


One of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods. It is used mostly in savory dishes, but also is used in some sweet dishes.

Squash (Zucchini)

A variety of summer squash with a dark green skin covering an off-white flesh. The cylindrical variety is much like a cucumber in size and shape. Can be cooked by steaming, frying, sautéing, or baking.

Acidity Regulator

E 330 Citric Acid

It is present in practically all plants, and in many animal tissues and fluids, but it is in particularly high concentrations in lemons and other citrus juices and many ripe fruits. It can be found in a wide range of products, including non-alcoholic drinks, bakery products, beer, cheese and processed cheese spreads, cider, biscuits, cake mixes, frozen fish (particularly herrings, shrimps and crab), ice cream, jams, jellies, frozen croquette potatoes and potato waffles, preserves, sorbets, packet soups, sweets, tinned fruits, sauces and vegetables and wine.

E 331 Monosodium Citrate

Sodium salts of citric acid, a compound found in every living organism, as it is part of the key metabolic pathways in all body cells. Large concentrations are found in citrus fruits, kiwi, strawberries and many other fruits. Commercially prepared by fermentation of molasses with the mould Aspergillus niger.

E 332 Monopotassium Citrate

As a food additive, potassium citrate is used to regulate acidity and is known as E number E332. Medicinally, it may be used to control kidney stones derived from either uric acid or cystine.

E 333 Monocalcium Citrate

Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive, usually as a preservative, but sometimes for flavor. In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate. Calcium citrate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements.

E 334 Tartaric Acid

Natural acid, present in many fruits, especially grapes. Commercially prepared from waste products of the wine industry (grape skins).Found in many products, mainly confectionery, soft drinks, wine, and marmalade.

E 335 Monosodium Tartrate

Used as an emulsifier and a binding agent in food products such as jellies, margarine, and sausagecasings.

E 336 Monopotassium Tartrate

Potassium tartarate is an acidity regulator and anti-oxidant. Also used in producing baking powder and as emulsifier.

E 337 Sodium Potassium Tartrate

Acidity regulator and antioxidant. Also used as a stabiliser and emulsifier. Use in many products, mainly meat and cheese products.

E 338 Orthophosphoric Acid

Normal constituent of many fruits and vegetables. Commercially produced from phosphate mined in the US. It increases the permeability of salt in meats and acts as an anti-oxidant. Used in many products, mainly cola, meat and cheese products.

E 339 Monosodium Phosphate

Sodium salts of phosphoric acid. Normal constituent of the body. Commercially produced from phosphoric acid, which is produced from phosphate mined in the US. widely used in soda and cola as an acidifying agent to give tangy flavor.

E 340 Monopotassium Phosphate

It prevents desiccation and is used as an acid stabilizer in powder.

E 341 Monocalcium Phosphate

Calcium phosphate is an acidity regulator, used in baking powder and acts as a bread enhancer. It also binds metal ions, increases the activity of antioxidants and stabilises the texture of canned vegetables.

E 350 Sodium Malate

A natural acid present in fruit, its alate is used as a buffer and flavouring in soft drinks, confectionery and other foods.

E 353 Metataric Acid

An acid, present in sugar cane and produced from glucose. Used in wine, fruit juices, etc.

E 354 Calcium Tartrate

A byproduct of the wine industry, prepared from wine fermentation dregs. It is the calcium salt of L-tartaric acid, an acid most commonly found in grapes. It finds use as a food preservative and acidity regulator. Used in fish and fruit preserves, seaweed products, pharmaceuticals, etc.

E 356 Sodium Adipate

Sodium salt of adipic acid, a natural acid present in beets and sugar cane (juice). Used in herbal salts.

E 357 Potassium Adipate

It is the potassium salt of adipic acid. Used as a food additive when cooking.

E 363 Succinic Acid

Natural acid, present in most fruits and vegetables. Commercially synthesised from acetic acid. Used in confectionary and bakery products.

E 380 Triammonium Citrate

Helps to keep maintain the correct consistency of cheese spreads. Used in confectionary chocolate and cheese spreads.

E 500 Sodium Carbonate

Produced from seawater or salt. Natural minerals. Acidity regulators, alkali, and rising agent.

E 501 Potassium Carbonate

Regulates the acidity of foods. Baking powder, baked products, cocoa, chocolate products.

E 503 Ammonium Carbonate

Produced from ammonium sulphate and calcium carbonate, natural minerals. Used as a leavening agents baking soda and baking powder.

E 507 Hydrochloric Acid

Natural acid, normal acid in the stomach. Produced from salt and sulphuric acid. Acidity regulator. Used in cheese and beer.

E 509 Calcium Chloride

Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Acidity regulator, enhances firmness in fruits and vegetables, binds metals. Used in many products, also used as calcium source in nutrition supplements.

E 511 Magnesium Chloride

Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Used in sterilizing vegetables.

E 524 Sodium Hydroxide

Prepared from natural salt. Used in many products, including bakery products, cocoa products, coffee creamer, and black olives.

E 521 Aluminium Sodium Sulphate

Prepared from natural aluminum sulphate. It strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. It is used as acidity regulator and bleaching agent in flour. Used in flour, cheese, confectionary.

E 513 Sulphuric Acid

Used in the brewing process to reduce the loss of sugars from the barley. The acid does not remain in the final product. Used in beer and cheese products.

E 525 Potassium Hydroxide

Prepared from the natural salt potassium chloride. Strong alkali used as acidity regulator. Also used to enhance the industrial peeling of fruits and to blacken olives. Bakery products, cocoa products, black olives and the color annatto.

E 585 Iron II-Lactate

Iron salt of lactic acid. Iron supplement in Infant formula.

E 577 Potassium Gluconate

Potassium salt of gluconic acid. Sequestrant (binds metals) in many products. Also used as nutrient for yeast. Used in pudding powders and custard.

E 574 Gluconic Acid

Synthetic, or produced by fungi from sugar. Used in fruit juices and jelly-powder.

E 530 Magnesium Oxide

A solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium Used in cocoa products and bakery products.

E 526 Calcium Hydroxide

Prepared from the natural salt calcium oxide. Used in cheese, cocoa products, wine, nutmeg, sweet frozen products, dried fish.

Anti-caking Agent

E 535 Sodium Ferrocyanide

Prepared from hydrogen ferrocyanide and sodium hydroxide. Used as metal binder and anti-caking agent. Used as a salt.

E 552 Calcium Silicate

Produced from chalk and special sand. An additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectionaries to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, and consumption.

E 555 Aluminium Potassium Silicate

Produced from several natural minerals. Used in some dry products, but hardly used.

E 556 Aluminium Calcium Silicate

Anti-caking agent used in some dry products, but hardly used.

E 558 Bentonite

A natural type of clay from volcanic origin. Used as anti-caking agent and emulsifier. Also used as clarifying agent in fruit juice preparations. Used in fruit juices and aromas. Main use, however, is in cosmetics.

E 570 Stearic Acid

A normal part of any fat. Commercially prepared from cottonseed oil, but animal origin cannot be excluded. Used in chewing gum, butter aroma/flavor, bakery products. Also used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations.

E 578 Calcium Gluconate

Calcium salt of gluconic acid. Anti-caking agent and strengthens the structure of canned vegetables. Used in pudding powders, custard, canned vegetables, and bakery products.


E 300 Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

A natural antioxidant occurring in most fruits and vegetables. E300 can also be produced synthetically from the fermentation and oxidation of glucose. It is a sugar acid that is most commonly used as a bread enhancer by acting as a flour-treating agent. Ascorbic acid also known as Vitamin C, essential for growth, healthy teeth, gums, bones, skin and blood vessels and aiding the absorption of iron, is found naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables. Signs of deficiency – Easy bruising, dry skin, slow metabolism.

E 304 Ascorbyl Palmitate/ Ascorbyl Stearate

A fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid and is produced by the esterification (production of an ester by reacting alcohol and acid) of the fatty acid palmitate and ascorbic acid. Used in processed meat, margarine, and cereal.

E 302 Calcium L-ascorbate

Used as an antioxidant, a color preservative and as a vitamin supplement. It can be found in bouillons, consommés, scotch eggs and other food products.

E 301 Sodium L-ascorbate

A highly reactive sodium salt (and one of four mineral ascorbates) of ascorbic acid. Although a natural antioxidant occurring in most fruits and vegetables, E301 can also be produced synthetically from the fermentation and oxidation of glucose, to provide a source of vitamin C. Used in potatoes, tinned fruits, soft drinks, beer, and wine.

E 306 Natural Tocopherols (Vitamin E)

An antioxidant for polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissue fats and is used in meat pies, desert toppings and vegetable oils as well as a vitamin supplement.

E 309 Synthetic Delta-Tocopherol

Found in most foods, it is abundant in, whole grain cereals, corn and cottonseed oils, egg yolks, meat and milk.

E 307 Synthetic Alpha-Tocopherol

Obtained by extraction from vegetable oils, such as wheat and rice germ, and can help prevent oxidation of Vitamin A. Its application to food products is limited by its strong flavor. Used in cheese, soup, animal and vegetable oils, animal and vegetable fats, margarine, and salad dressings.

E 310 Propyl Gallate

Produced by the esterification (production of an ester by reacting alcohol and acid) of gallic acid, produced in plant tannins. Used in cereals, milk, cheese, salad dressings, fats, and oils.

E 311 Octyl Gallate

Octyl gallate is the ester of octanol and gallic acid. Used in cereals, milk, cheese, salad dressings, fats, and oils.

E 312 Dodecyl Gallate

Synthesized from lauryl alcohol and gallic acid, which is produced from plant tannins. Anti-oxidant in fatty products, especially added to prevent rancidity. Used in oils and fats, margarine, soups, etc.

E 315 Isoascorbic

A vegetable-derived food additive produced from sucrose. Used in dairy-based drinks, processed cheeses, fat spreads, processed fruit, canned vegetables, cereals, sweeteners, vinegars, and mustards.

E 316 Sodium Isoascorbate

A Sodium salt of erythorbic acid, a synthetic isomer of vitamin C but with only 1/20 of the vitamin activity. Sodium erythorbate is produced from sugars derived from different sources, such as beets, sugar cane, and corn.

E 320 Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)

A synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and isobutylene. It retards spoilage due to oxidation in foods. It is used in edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products and polyethylene food wrappers.

E 321 Butylated Hydroxytoluene

A lipophilic organic compound that is used as an antioxidant. BHT is prepared by the reaction of p-cresol (4-methylphenol) with isobutylene (2-methylpropene) catalysed by sulfuric acid. It was patented in 1947 and approved by FDA in 1954 for use in vegetable oils, shortening, lard, fat, margarine, carbonated drinks, cheese spreads, chewing gum, ice cream, dry breakfast cereal.

E 512 Tin II Chloride

Prepared from tin ores and hydrochloric acid. Used in canned beans and asparagus.

Bread Enhancer

E 927 Carbanide

Bread enhancer. Bleaching agent for flour. Not used often.

Coagulating Agent

E 520 Aluminium Sulphate

Natural mineral, from which the commercial product is purified. Used to precipitate protein, for example during the beer brewing process. It also strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. Beer, pickled vegetables, proteins.


E 901 Bees Wax, White and Yellow

Natural polymer produces by bees. The white wax is bleached by sunlight or hydrogen peroxide. Coating, in chewing gum and part of honey flavor.

E 902 Candelilla Wax

Natural polymer produced from the Mexican trees Euphorbia antisyphilitica, E. cerifera and Pedilanthus pavonis. Used in chewing gum and confectionary products.

E 904 Shellac

Natural polymer derived from certain species of lice from India. Coating. Used as a confectionery or fruit coating.

E 912 Montanic Acid Ester

Wax obtained by solvent extraction of lignite (brown coal). It consists of non-glyceride carboxylic acid esters, free acids and resins. Coating for citrus fruits.


E 472 e Mono and Diacetyltartaric Acid Esters

Sters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. It is used in crusty breads, such as rye bread with a springy, chewy texture, as well as biscuits, coffee whiteners, ice cream, and salad dressings.

E 541 Sodium Aluminium Phosphate

Natural amino acid (building block of protein). Commercially prepared from molasses by bacterial fermentation. Also prepared from vegetable protein, such as gluten, or soy protein. Glutamic acid and glutamates are present in all proteins. Free glutamates are present in high concentrations in ripened cheese, breast milk, tomatoes and sardines.

E 483 Stearyl Tartrate

Used as a dough strengthening agent

E 475 Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids

Combination of polyglycerol and natural fats. Extensively used in icings, toppings and cake mixes, ice cream, other desserts, bakery and pastry products.

E 474 Sucroglycerides

Obtained by reacting sucrose with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent. Used as an emulsifier, stabilizer and thickener – found in many dairy based products.

E 473 Sucrose Esters

Mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with sugar. Used to stabilize margarine, mayonnaise, soups and dairy desserts. Modify swelled starch in noodles and baked goods. Also, may be found in the following: baking mixes, chewing gum, coffee and tea beverages with added dairy ingredients, frozen dairy desserts and mixes, as a component of protective coatings applied to fresh apples, avocados, bananas, banana plantains, limes, melons (honeydew and cantaloupe), papaya, peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. Also involved in the production of olestra.

E 472 f Mixed Acetic and Tartaric Acid Esters

Consists of esters of glycerol with fatty acids of food fats, acetic acid and tartaric acid. It may contain small amounts of free glycerol, free fatty acids, free acetic acid, free tartaric acid and free glycerides. Found in processed bread and some other products.

E 482 Calcium Stearyol

Similar to E481 but with calcium as the added mineral instead of sodium. Lactic acid in commercial food is produced either by chemical synthesis or from bacterial fermentation of a carbohydrate such as corn sugar. It is considered safe for a milk allergic individual. Used as a conditioner in dehydrated potatoes (instant mashed potatoes) and helps to prevent staling in bread.

E 481 Sodium Stearoyl

Manufactured by the esterification of stearic acid with lactic acid and partially neutralized with either food-grade soda ash (sodium carbonate) or caustic soda (concentrated sodium hydroxide). Found in bakery products, chewing gum, puddings and gravy.

E 479 Thermo-oxidised Soya Oil

Found in margarine and similar fat emulsions for frying purposes.

E 477 Propane

A combination of propanediol and natural fats. Used in bakery products in cakes and whipped toppings as emulsifiers and aerating agents, soft drinks, ice-cream, and processed meats.

E 476 Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate

Produced from castor oil and glycerol esters. It is used to help reduce the viscosity of molten chocolate, so improving the fluidity and enabling thinner coatings. Mainly used in icings, toppings and in cake mixes.

E 495 Sorbitan Monopalmitate

Sorbitan monopalmitate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides with palmitic acid. Used in baked goods and other products.

E 494 Sorbitan Mono-oleate

Emulsifier and stabilizer – found in numerous different products including baked goods.

E 493 Sorbitan Monolaurate

A lipophilic surface-active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallization of fats. Used in bakery products, toppings and coatings, marmalade, fat emulsions, milk and cream analogues, beverage whiteners, liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates, edible ices, emulsified sauces, dietary food supplements, chewing gum, dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes.

E 492 Sorbitan Tristearate

Sorbitan tristearate is used as an emulsifier and stabilizer. It is produced by the esterification of sorbitol with commercial stearic acid derived from food fats and oils. Used in bakery products, toppings and coatings, fat emulsions, milk and cream analogues, beverage whiteners, edible ices, desserts, sugar confectionery including chocolate, emulsified sauces, dietary food supplements, chewing gum and dietetic foods.

E 322 Lecithins

Lecithin is present in all living cells and is a significant constituent of nerve and brain cells. Commercial lecithin, most of which comes from soya bean oil, which may be Genetically Modified, contains a mixture of phosphoglycerides containing principally lecithin, cephalin and phosphatidyl inositol. Used in oils, fats, chocolate, ice cream, margarine, mayonnaise, and bread.

E 472 d Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono and Diglycerides

Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. Emulsifier, stabilizer, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. Used in high fat bread, edible fats, whipped fats and meat products.

E 450 Diphosphate, Phosphate

Salts of sodium/potassium/calcium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Found in many different products. Various diphosphates are used as emulsifiers, stabilizers, acidity regulators, raising agents, sequestrants, and water retention agents in food processing.

E 444 Sucrose-acetate-isobutyrate

Categorized as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a food additive in cocktail mixers, beer, malt beverages, or wine coolers[2] and is a potential replacement for brominated vegetable oil.

E 435 Polyoxyethylene-sorbitan-monostearate

A synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Various purposes such as to disperse flavors and colors, to make essential oils and vitamins soluble and to improve volume and texture in bakery products.

E 434 Polyoxyethylene-sorbitan-monopalmitate

A synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and palmitic acid (a natural fatty acid). Used in desserts, sugar confectionery.

E 432 Polyoxyethylene-soritan-monolaurate

Polyoxyethene-sorbitan-monooleate (Polysorbate 20) – Widely used as an emulsifier or solubilizer in a variety of foods including bakery products.

E 442 Ammonium Phosphatides

A natural acid polysaccharide present in nearly all fruits, especially apples, quinces and oranges. It is commercially produced from apple pulp and orange peels. Sodium, potassium, and ammonium pectates are the respective salts of pectin. Amidated pectin is prepared by treating pectin with ammonia, after which amides are formed at the acid side chains. Used in Marmalades, fruit jellies and sauces, and many other different products.

E 436 Polyoxyethylene-sorbitan-tristearate

Emulsifier and anti-foaming agent. It is commonly used in cake fillings, cake mixes, cakes, frozen custard, frozen desserts, ice cream, and cream substitutes for coffee.

E 472 c Citric Acid Esters of Mono and Diglycerides

Formed by esterifying the hydroxyl groups of mono and diglycerides. Used as an emulsifier. A substitute for lecithin (E322) in various applications. Permitted for use in infant formula and follow-on milk and other foods for infants and young children.

E 452 Polyphosphate

Sequestrants (metal binders), stabilizer and emulsifiers. Also used to retain water during processing and storage.

E 451 Triphosphate, Phosphate

It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. Used as a preservative for seafood, meats, poultry, and animal feeds.

E 472 a Acetic Acid Esters of Mono and Diglycerides

Improves aeration properties of high fat recipes and produces a stable foam in whipped products by collecting together the fat globules.

E 471 Mono- and Diglyceride

Manufactured from glycerin (see E422) and fatty acids, these are normally obtained from hydrogenated soya bean oil and as such may be genetically modified. Used where the foaming power of egg protein needs to be retained in the presence of fat and in baked goods as an ‘anti-staling’ agent where it prevents the loss of water from starches.

E 470 b Magnesium Salts of Edible Fatty Acids

Magnesium salts of fatty acids are the magnesium salts of natural fatty acids. They are produced mainly from plant origin, but can also be produced from the fats of animals. Used in cake mixes and oven ready chips. Also used extensively in bread and wheat-based bakery goods, which give the home baked taste.

E 470 a Sodium

Fatty acids are natural elements of fats and oils. Salts of natural fatty acids are mainly derived from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. Used in cake mixes and oven ready chips.

E 472 b Lactic Acid Esters of Mono and Diglycerides

Used as a stabilizer – included in low calorie spreads, peanut butter and ice cream to control their texture, starch-based foods such as macaroni, noodles, potato products and in the bakery industry.

Flavor Enhancer

E 629 Calcium Guanylate

A natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars.

E 630 Insinic Acid

Sodium salt of inosinic acid, a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars.

E 631 Disodium Ionisate

Potassium salt of inosinic acid. Flavor enhancer. Umami taste. Used in many products. Mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

E 632 Dipotassium Ionisate

Calcium salt of inosinic acid. Flavor enhancer. Used in many products. Mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

E 633 Dicalcium Ionisate

Mixture of calcium salts of guanylic (E626) and inosinic acid (E630). Used in low sodium/salt products.

E 634 Calcium 5-ribonucleotide

Used in many products. Mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

E 635 Disodium 5-ribonucleotide

A natural amino acid, a building block of protein. Mainly produced from gelatin, partly synthetic. It is a nutrient, mainly for yeast in bread. Also used as a bread enhancer. Used in bakery products.

E 640 Glycine and its Sodium Salts

A natural amino acid, a building block of protein. Mainly produced from gelatin, partly synthetic. It is a nutrient, mainly for yeast in bread. Also used as a bread enhancer. Used in bakery products.

E 620 Glutamic Acid

Sodium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Flavor enhancer. Glutamic acid and glutamates have the specific umami taste and enhance many other flavors, thereby reducing the amounts of salt needed in a product.

E 621 Monosodium Glutamate

Potassium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Present in all proteins. Free glutamates are present in high concentrations in ripened cheese, breast milk, tomatoes and sardines.

E 628 Dipotassium Guanylate

Calcium salt of guanylic acid. Flavor enhancer. Guanylic acid and guanylate do not have the specific umami taste but strongly enhance many other flavors, thereby reducing the amounts of salt needed in a product. Used in many products, mainly in low-salt/sodium products.

E 627 Disodium Guanylate

Potassium salt of guanylic acid. Used in many products, mainly in low-salt/sodium products.

E 626 Guanylic Acid

Sodium salt of guanylic acid, a natural acid, which is part of RNA, one of the genetic carrier molecules in the cell. It is thus part of all cells in all living organisms. Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines.

E 625 Magnesium Diglutamate

Guanylic acid is a natural acid, which is part of RNA, one of the genetic carrier molecules in the cell. It is thus part of all cells in all living organisms. Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines.

E 624 Monoammonium Glutamate

Magnesium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Hardly used, only in low sodium meat products.

E 623 Calcium Diglutamate

Ammonium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Mainly used in low salt (low sodium) products.

E 622 Monopotassium Glutamate

Calcium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Mainly used in low salt (low sodium) products.

Food Dye

E 150 b Sulphite Lye Caramel

Complex brown color mixture, made by dry heating and burning of sugars in the presence of alkali, ammonia, sulphite or combinations thereof. Used in brown bread, buns, chocolate, biscuits, brandy, chocolate flavored flour-based confectionery, coatings, decorations, fillings and toppings, crisps, fish spreads, frozen desserts, pickles, sauces and dressings, cola drinks, sweets, vinegar, whisky.

E 150 d Ammonium Sulphite Caramel

A water-soluble food coloring. It is made by heat treatment of carbohydrates, in general in the presence of acids, alkalis, or salts, in a process called caramelization. It is more fully oxidized than caramel candy and has an odor of burnt sugar and a somewhat bitter taste.

E 151 Brilliant Black BN. Black PN

Used in decorations and coatings, desserts, fish paste, flavored milk drinks, ice cream, mustard, red fruit jams, sauces, savory snacks, soft drinks, soups and sweets.

E 153 Vegetable Carbon

Vegetable carbon is produced by steam activation of carbonized vegetable material2. It can used both as a food coloring and as a medication (it can be used to absorb chemicals).

E 154 Brown FK

A brown mixture of six synthetic azo dyes, with addition of sodium chloride, and/or sodium sulfate. Used in smoked and cured mackerels and other fish and also in some cooked hams and other meats.

E 160 a Carotene (mixed carotene, beta-carotene)

Natural color isolated from several plants; however, it is obtained commercially from carrots. Used in margarine, shortening, butter, cheese, baked goods, confections, ice cream, eggnog, macaroni products, soups, juices, beverages, dairy products, bakery products, meat, seafood, snack food, fruit preparations, and convenience foods.

E 163 Anthocyanins

Can be derived from a number or sources such as grape skin extract, blackcurrant extract, purple corn color, and red cabbage color. Used in dairy products, soups, glacé cherries, sweets, pickles, jelly, and soft drinks.

E 162 Beetroot Red (betanin)

A red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. The most common uses of betanins are in coloring ice cream and powdered soft drink beverages; other uses are in some sugar confectionery, e.g. fondants, sugar strands, sugar coatings, and fruit or cream fillings. In hot processed candies, it can be used if added at the final part of the processing. Betanin is also used in soups as well as tomato and bacon products.

E 161 g Canthaxanthin

Found in some mushrooms, crustaceans and fish, so vegetarians beware, but it is normally obtained commercially from beta-carotene. Used in such products as chicken in breadcrumbs, fish fingers, mallow biscuits, pickles and preserves, sauces and sweets it is also fed to farmed salmon and trout to enhance the color of the flesh. Fed to laying hens to color egg yolks. It is also used to color the skin in artificial sun-tan products.

E 161 b Lutein

Synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and yellow carrots. Yellow food coloring. Rarely used. If used only in soups and alcoholic beverages.

E 160 c Capsanthin, Capsorubin

Used widely in poultry feed to deepen the color of egg yolks it can also be found in cheese slices and chicken pies.

E 170 Calcium Carbonate

A common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which is a type of sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcite) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggs. Can be found in biscuits, bread, cakes, ice cream, sweets, vitamin and other tablets and to firm canned fruit and vegetables, it is sometimes used for to deacidify wine. Also used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders.

E 180 Lithol Rubine

A reddish synthetic azo dye. It is used to color cheese rind as well as a component in some lip balms.

E 174 Silver

Obtained from crushed silver bearing ore. As a food additive it is used solely for external decoration where it can be found on chocolate confectionery, in the covering of dragées and the decoration of sugar-coated flour confectionery.

E 173 Aluminium

A naturally occurring silvery-white metal smelted from the ore, Bauxite. Because of its chemical form, aluminium never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to varying degrees in almost all rocks, vegetation, and animals. Used in tablets, sugar-coated flour, confectionery, and cake decorations.

E 172 Iron Oxides, Iron Hydroxides

Natural minerals, but for commercial usage, they are produced chemically from iron powder. They exist in a range of colors. Used in salmon pastes, shrimp pastes, meat pastes, cake and dessert packets, and soups.

E 171 Titanium Dioxide

A natural color found as chalk, limestone, marble, dolomite, eggshells, and the shells of many marine animals. Used in biscuits, breads, cakes, ice-cream, sweets, vitamins and other tablets, canned fruit and vegetables, wine.

E 175 Gold

Gold is extracted by the cyanide process (extracting gold from its ore by treatment with sodium cyanide) or by amalgamation with mercury. Amalgamation involves gold being drawn into mercury to form an alloy – amalgam. The mercury can then be removed by being dissolved in nitric acid, leaving gold. Used in sugar-coated flour confectionery and chocolate confectionery decorations.

E 100 Curcumin

A bright yellow chemical produced by some plants. The most common applications are as an ingredient in dietary supplement, in cosmetics, and as flavoring for foods, such as turmeric-flavored beverages in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. As a food additive for orange-yellow coloring in prepared foods, its E number is E100.

E 101 Riboflavin

Also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains. As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines. It may be given by mouth or injection. As a food additive, it is used as a deep yellow – orange – red food coloring.

E 120 Cochineal, Carminic Acid

A pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminum salt of carminic acid. The pigment is produced from some scale insects. It is routinely added to food products such as yogurt, candy and certain brands of juice, the most notable ones being those of the ruby-red variety.

E 110 Sunset Yellow FCF

A petroleum-derived orange azo dye. When added to foods sold in the US it is known as FD&C Yellow 6; when sold in Europe, it is denoted by E Number E110. Sunset Yellow is used in food, cosmetics, and drugs. For example, it is used in candy, desserts, snacks, sauces, and preserved fruits. Sunset Yellow is often used in conjunction with E123, amaranth, to produce a brown coloring in both chocolates and caramel.

E 104 Quinoline Yellow

A mixture of organic compounds derived from the dye Quinoline Yellow SS (Spirit Soluble). Quinoline Yellow is permitted in beverages and is used in foods, like sauces, decorations, and coatings; Quinoline Yellow is not listed as a permitted food additive in Canada or the US, where it is permitted in medicines and cosmetics and is known as D&C Yellow 10.

E 102 Tartrazine

A synthetic lemon-yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring. A commonly used color all over the world, mainly for yellow, and can also be used with Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1, E133) or Green S (E142) to produce various green shades.

E 123 Amaranth

An anionic dye. As a food additive it has E number E123. Amaranth usually comes as a trisodium salt. It has the appearance of reddish-brown, dark red to purple water-soluble powder. Can be found in cake mixes, jelly crystals, wine, spirits, soups, and desserts.

E 122 Carmoisine

An azo dye produced only by chemical synthesis as a disodium salt. In its dry form, the product appears red to maroon. It is mainly used in foods which are heat-treated after fermentation. Used in blancmange, marzipan, Swiss roll, jams and preserves, sweets, brown sauce, flavored yogurts, packet soups, jellies.

E 124 Poceau 4R

A strawberry red azo dye which can be used in a variety of food products and is usually synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons Can be found in salami, tinned fruits, dessert mixes, or soups.

E 127 Erythrosine

An organoiodine compound, specifically a derivative of fluorone. It is cherry or melon-pink synthetic, primarily used for food coloring. Commonly used in sweets such as some candies and popsicles, and even more widely used in cake-decorating gels. It is also used to color pistachio shells.

E 131 Patent Blue V

A dark bluish synthetic triphenylmethane dye used as a food coloring. It can be found in Scotch eggs, certain jelly sweets, blue Curaçao, and certain jello varieties.

E 129 Allura Red AC

It is usually supplied as its red sodium salt, but can also be used as the calcium and potassium salts. It is used in many products, such as cotton candy, soft drinks, cherry flavored products, children’s medications, and dairy products. It is by far the most commonly used red dye in the United States.

E 128 Rot 2 G

A synthetic red azo dye. It is used as a synthetic coloring agent in food and drink products. The common name for E128 is Red 2G.

E 150 a Caramel

Caramel Brown to black color – Gives a dark brown color to food and are produced by heat treatment of sucrose. These colorings can sometimes add a bitter taste to food products containing them. E150 can also act as an emulsifier in soft drinks.

E 142 Green S

A green synthetic coal tar dye found in desserts, gravy granules, ice cream, mint sauce, sweets, packet breadcrumbs, cake mixes and tinned peas.

E 141 Chlorophylls (CU Complexes)

Synthetic copper complex of chlorophyll (E140), a natural green color, which is present in all plants and algae. E141 is commercially extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa. Due to chemical de-esterification of chlorophyll, phaeophytins are formed. Used in sweets, soups, ice creams, and preserved green fruits and vegetables.

E 140 Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins

Natural green color, present in all plants and algae. Commercially extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa. Used in pasta, absinthe, cheeses, preserved vegetables, jams, jellies and marmalades.

E 133 Brilliant Blue FCF

A synthetic dye produced by the condensation of 2-formylbenzenesulfonic acid and the appropriate aniline followed by oxidation. It is often found in cotton candy, ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blueberry flavored products, children’s medications, dairy products, sweets, soft drinks, and drinks, especially the liqueur Blue Curaçao. It is also used in soaps, shampoos, mouthwash and other hygiene and cosmetics applications.

E 132 Indigo Carmine

An organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation, which renders the compound soluble in water. It is approved for use as a food colorant. Used in ice-cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionery, and biscuits.


E 1404 Oxidierte Starch

Prepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidized. Used as a thickening agent and stabilizer. Often used to thicken instant desserts.

Modified Starch

E 1420 Acetylised Starch

Can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, binder, emulsifier during food and cosmetic processing. Used in ketchups, sauces, mayonnaises, semi-finished products, horticultural preserved products, marmalades, jams, spices, different products made of fruits and ice-cream.

E 1440 Hydroxypropyl Starch

Hydroxypropyl starch (modified starch) – Obtained by treatment of corn or wheat starch with heat, alkali, acids or enzymes. Used in food thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers and texturizers in various commercial foods: baked goods, ice creams, jams, canned foods, confections, sauces, etc.

E 1442 Hydroxypropyl Di-starch Phosphate

A starch that is treated with acetic anhydride and adipic acid anhydride to resist high temperatures. It is used in foods as a bulking agent, stabilizer and a thickener. Used predominately in frozen cakes, dry mixes (cupcakes, muffins, cakes, cookies, and self-saucing puddings), flavored toppings and sauces, breakfast cereals, custard powders, mayonnaises and salad dressings. Also used in soups, vegetable and meat sauces, ketchup, and fruit concentrates, jams, marmalades, jellies, and purees, desserts, whipped creams, pies and fillings, and instant beverages, fermented milk, drinking yogurt, flavored milks, pre-cooked pastas and noodles, sausages, meat balls, fish balls.

E 1450 Starch Sodium Ocenylsuccinate

Starch sodium octenylsuccinate (modified starch) – Salt of starch octenylsuccinate which exhibits emulsifying properties is used as food additive and is also recommended as yolk replacer in the process of mayonnaise production.

E 1404 Oxidierte Starch

Prepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidized. Used as a thickening agent and stabilizer. Often used to thicken instant desserts.

E 1410 Monostarch Phosphate

As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas.

E 1412 Di-starch Phosphate

Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent.

E 1413 Phosphatised Di-starch P.

A modified resistant starch. It is derived from high amylose maize starch. It is currently used as a food additive and as a freeze-thaw-stable thickener (stabilises the consistency of the foodstuff when frozen and thawed). It is used in products such as soups, sauces, frozen gravies and pie fillings.

E 1414 Acetylised Di-starch Phosphate

Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent and acetic acid. The resulting starch has increased stability and dissolves better at low temperatures. Used in yogurt, puddings, mayonnaise, canned foods, ice cream, frozen microwave noodle, sauce, salad dressing, seasoning, and tarre juice.


E 234 Nisin

A polypeptide antibiotic, made of chains of 34 amino acids. This chemical is a primary metabolite as it is produced by fermentation, during the growth of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. May be obtained naturally (e.g. from milk) and is also chemically synthesized. Used in beers, tomato paste, canned fruits, and processed cheese products.

E 239 Hexamethylene-tetramine

Obtained by reacting Ammonia with Formaldehyde. Used as a preservative against fungi in food products such as Caviar, cheese, herring and preserved fish.

E 242 Dimethyl Dicarbonate

Acts to inhibit enzymes in soft drinks to prevent spoilage by yeasts. It acts as an alternative preservative to sulphur dioxide in wines. Used in, fruit drinks, wine, and sports drinks.

E 252 Potassium Nitrate

Can be obtained from vegetable matter or animal waste. It can also be synthesized industrially by the neutralization of nitric acid by potassium chloride. Used in meat, fish, cheese, and root vegetables.

E 250 Sodium Nitrite

A food additive that gives cured meats, such as ham, bacon, hot dogs, frankfurters, smoked fish and corned beef, their characteristic red color and flavor, it inhibits the growth of bacterial spores that cause botulism, a deadly food borne illness, and retards development of rancidity and off-odors.

E 249 Potassium Nitrite

The salt of nitrous acid and is highly oxidizing. Used in meat (smoked, cured and processed), root vegetables, and fish.

E 280 Propionic Acid

Natural acid present in small quantities in many foods, sometimes in high concentrations produced by bacteria in fermented foods, such as types of Swiss cheese. It is also produced on a large scale by the bacteria in the large intestine. It is also a normal component of sweat. Commonly used in bread and flour products.

E 270 Lactic Acid

Natural acid produced by bacteria in fermented foods. All fermented foods are very rich in lactic acid. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses.

E 262 Sodium Acetate

The sodium salt of acetic acid. Typical use in food products include bouillons. Used as a preservative in liquorice, as a pickling agent and as a flavor-enhancing additive in meat and poultry. A frequent use is to impart a salt and vinegar flavor to potato crisps.

E 261 Potassium Acetate

Potassium salt of acetic acid, an natural acid, present in most fruits. Produced by bacterial fermentation and thus present in all fermented products. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, molasses or alcohol or by chemical synthesis from acetaldehyde. Used in sauces and pickles.

E 281 Sodium Propionate

The sodium salt of propionic acid. Although it is also produced through fermentation by bacteria in food; for commercial purpose it is produced through a chemical reaction. Used in baked goods, cheese, and meat preparations, processed meat, and fish.

E 297 Fumaric Acid

A natural acid present in many fruits and vegetables. Commercially made by fermentation of sugar by fungi or by chemical synthesis. Typical products include bread, fruit drinks, pie fillings, poultry, wine, jams, jelly.

E 296 Malic Acid

Made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Typical products include non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, gelatins, puddings, fillings, hard and soft sweets, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices.

E 283 Potassium Propionate

The potassium salt of propionic acid. Used in processed cheese, bread, meat, flour, and chocolate.

E 282 Calcium Propionate

The calcium salt of propionic acid. This chemical is produced by bacteria, either in the large intestine, or in fermented products. Used in processed cheese, bread, meat, flour, and chocolate.

E 327 Calcium Lactate

The calcium salt of lactic acid. Used in cream, cheese, ice-cream, soup, baking powder.

E 326 Potassium Lactate

The potassium salt of lactic acid. Found in cheese, confectionery, ice cream, fruit jellies, soups, canned fruits.

E 325 Sodium Lactate

The sodium salt of Lactic acid. Used in cheese, sponge cakes and Swiss rolls, ice cream, jams, jellies, margarine, marmalades and sweets.

E 1105 Lysozyme

An enzyme, that is commercially prepared from chicken eggs or by bacteria. One of the most powerful natural antibacterial and antiviral compounds known to man, has been used in foods and pharmaceuticals for over three decades as it naturally inhibits the growth of many spoilage organisms, increases a healthy shelf life and ensures food safety.

E 200 Sorbic Acid

Naturally occurs in the fruit of the European Mountain-ash, after which the acid is named. It is commercially produced by several different chemical pathways. Used in a wide range of products, such as yogurt and other fermented dairy products, fruit salads, confectionery, lemonade, cheese, rye bread, cakes and bakery products, pizza, shellfish, lemon juice, wine, cider and soups.

E 203 Calcium Corbat

Made from the neutralization of sorbic acid and is therefore the calcium salt of sorbic acid. Used in dairy products, rye bread, frozen pizzas, dessert sauces, dried apricots, fruit salads, gelatin capsules, and other sweets.

E 210 Benzoic Acid

Whilst occurring naturally in many edible berries, fruits and vegetables it is available commercially by chemical synthesis from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia. Can be found in beer, coffee essence, dessert sauces, soft drinks, flavoring syrups, fruit juice, pulp and purée, jam, margarine, marinated herring.

E 215 Sodium Ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB-Ester)

It is used as an antifungal preservative. Found in most fruits, mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves, some dairy products (as a result of bacterial fermentation). For commercial purposes, it is prepared chemically from toluene and then esterified.

E 214 Ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB-Ester)

An ethyl ester resulting from the formal condensation of the carboxy group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with ethanol It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an antifungal agent, a plant metabolite and a phytoestrogen. Used in alcoholic beverages such as red wine, white wine, and sake.

E 213 Calcium Benzoate, Benzoic Acid

Benzoic acid, benzoates and benzoic acid esters are commonly found in most fruits, especially berries. In addition to fruits, benzoates occur naturally in mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves and some dairy products (as a result of bacterial fermentation). For commercial purposes, it is prepared chemically from toluene. It is used in soft drinks, fruit juice, concentrates, soy milk, soy sauce and vinegar. It is the most widely used preservative in making bread and other bakery products.

E 211 Sodium Benzoate

It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams and fruit juices, pickles, condiments and yogurt toppings.

E 222 Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite

Prevents oxidation and helps to preserve flavor. prevents oxidation and helps to preserve flavor. Used in wine, canned fruits, frozen shellfish, jams, pickles, vegetables, ciders, and juices.

E 217 Sodiumpropyl-para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB-Ester)

The sodium salt of propylparaben, a compound, is also used similarly as a food additive and as an anti-fungal preservation agent. Used as a food preservative.

E 221 Sodium Sulphite

The sodium salt for sulphurous acid and forms sodium sulphate after reacting with oxygen. The liver reduces E221 to sulphate, for excretion in the urine. Used in beer, bread, caramel, egg yolk products, and salads.

E 220 Sulphur Dioxide

A common substance which also has bleaching effects that are exploited in order to prevent discoloration of products such as flour. It occurs naturally from the combustion of sulphur, hydrogen sulphide or gypsum, and may be considered a pollutant. Used in sausages, burgers, dried fruit, vegetables, and soft drinks.

E 219 Sodium Methyl-para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB-Ester)

An antifungal synthetic preservative in food products, drugs and cosmetics. Used in baked goods, ice cream, and medicine.

E 218 Methyl-para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB-Ester)

Naturally found as a pheromone for a variety of insects and is a component of queen mandibular pheromone. Preservative used in ice cream, alcoholic drinks, medicine, and baked goods.

E 227 Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite

Used as an antimicrobial synthetic preservative in food products. It can also be used as a firming agent and disinfectant. Used in canned fruit, canned vegetables, fruit juice, fruit jellies, jams, pickles and beer.

E 226 Calcium Sulphite

Used as an antimicrobial synthetic preservative in food products and bleaching agent in sugar production. This chemical has also been used as a firming agent and as a disinfectant. Used in canned fruits, fruit pickles, fruit juice, cider, wine, and vegetables.

E 224 Potassium Metabisulphite

Used as an antimicrobial, antioxidant synthetic food preservative and bleaching agent in food products. Used in wine, frozen vegetables, frozen shellfish, fruit juice, and pickles.

E 223 Sodium Metabisulphite

As with other sulphurous acid salts, the chemical’s oxidizing effect has the disadvantage of reducing the vitamin content of the food containing it. Used in vegetables (especially frozen), fruit juice, pickles, frozen shellfish, and dried fruits.

Salt Substitute

E 508 Potassium Chloride

Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Used in many salt-free/sodium-free/low-sodium products.

E 515 Potassium Sulphate

Prepared from potassium salts and sulphuric acid. Natural mineral. Used for treatment of water used for brewing; salt replacer. Beer, low-sodium products.


E 1505 Triethyl Citrate

An ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive to stabilize foams, especially as whipping aid for egg white.

E 514 Sodium Sulphate

Prepared from salt and sulphuric acid. Filling agent and stabilizer. Used in chewing gum and colors.

E 517 Ammonium Sulphate

Carriers are substances that can be used to hold other additives. Used in bakery and confectionary products.

E 523 Aluminium Ammonium Sulphate

It is used as acid source in baking powder for bakery products, baked at high temperature. It also stabilizes colors.

Thickening Agent

E 1200 Polydextrose

A synthetic polymer of glucose. It is a food ingredient classified as soluble fiber by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as Health Canada, as of April 2013. It is frequently used to increase the dietary fiber content of food, to replace sugar, and to reduce calories and fat content. It is a multi-purpose food ingredient synthesized from dextrose (glucose), plus about 10 percent sorbitol and 1 percent citric acid. Its E number is E1200.

E 401 Sodium Alginate

Extracted from brown seaweed. It is used as a stabiliser for ice cream, yogurt, cream, and cheese. It acts as a thickener and emulsifier for salad, pudding, jam, tomato juice, and canned products. It is a hydration agent for noodles, bread, cool and frozen products.

E 352 Calcium Malate

Helps to maintain the pH in foods containing processed fruits such as jams and marmalade.

E 405 Propylene Glycol Alginate

Commonly used as an additive to aid in the processing of foods and improve their texture, flavor, appearance and shelf life.Used in Ice cream, confectionery, dressings, etc.

E 403 Ammonium Alginate

Extracted from seaweed. Emulsifier and thickening agent. Used in Soft drinks, food colors, icings, etc.

E 402 Potassium Alginate

Potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polysaccharide, produced by different seaweeds of the family Phaeophyceae. Used Many different products, mainly for low-salt/sodium products.

E 406 Agar

Thickener and vegetable gum derived from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative, found in manufactured meats and ice cream.

E 407 Carrageenan

Derived from a red seaweed by heating and converting into a gel. Used to thicken and stabilize processed foods. Also used as an emulsifier in certain products. Used in ice cream, chocolate milk, sherbet, jam, jelly, cheese spread, dressings, crackers, pastries, custard, evaporated milk, whipped cream, infant formula, and soy milk.

E 412 Guar Gum

Extracted from the guar bean; made with the ground up guar seeds. Used as a thickener, binder, and stabilizer in a variety of foods. Used in baked goods, cereal, fruit drinks, frozen fruit, cheese spread, dressing, jelly and preserves, yogurt, kefir, sauces, and ice cream.

E 410 Locust Bean Gum, Carob Gum

A natural polysaccharide, produced from the carob tree. Acts as thickener, stabilizer, carrier and gelling agent for many foods.

E 407 a Eucheuma Algae, Treated

Treated A type of red seaweed. Can be used as a thickening agent in cosmetics and some foods.

E 414 Gum Arabic

A natural polysaccharide, produced from the tree Acacia senegal from tropical Africa. Used in soft drinks and gummy sweets such as marshmallow, and gumdrops.

E 418 Gellane

A natural polysaccharide, produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas elodea from starch, and used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener, and gelling agent in food and beverage industry. Used in Dairy products, dressings, juices, etc.

E 417 Tara Meal

A natural polysaccharide (galactomannan), obtained from the tree Caesalpinia spinosa native to South America, but also cultivated in the Mediterranean region.

E 416 Karaya Gum

A vegetable gum produced as an exudate by trees of the genus Sterculia. Used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, as a laxative, and as a denture adhesive. It is also used to adulterate Gum tragacanth due to their similar physical characteristics.

E 415 Xanthan Gum

A polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive. It is an effective thickening agent and stabilizer to prevent ingredients from separating. It can be produced from simple sugars using a fermentation process. Commonly used in salad dressings and sauces.

E 464 Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

A semisynthetic compound derived from cellulose, the woody material produced by plants. Found in sterilized, pasteurized and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurized low-fat cream, bakery products and in reduced fat products. Also in pharmaceuticals including Multibionta 50+ Probiotic multi vitamin pills, Rhinolast nasal allergy spray and Viagra.

E 463 Hydroxypropylcellulose

Hydroxypropyl cellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically propylated. Found in sterilised, pasteurised and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurised low-fat cream. Also used as a laxative and as an additive to tobacco products and in cosmetics as a binding agent, emulsion stabilizer, film former and viscosity adjuster.

E 461 Methylcellulose

Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsfier. Used in ice cream or croquette. Methyl cellulose is also an important emulsifier, preventing the separation of two mixed liquids.

E 440 Pectin, Amidated Pectin

A natural acid polysaccharide present in nearly all fruits, especially apples, quinces and oranges. It is commercially produced from apple pulp and orange peels. Sodium, potassium, and ammonium pectates are the respective salts of pectin. Amidated pectin is prepared by treating pectin with ammonia, after which amides are formed at the acid side chains. Used in Marmalades, fruit jellies and sauces, and many other different products.

E 466 Carboxymethylcellulose

Used as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions. It is used in drink flavorings, cordials, flavored toppings, breakfast cereals, snack bars, infant formula, frozen cakes, fruit twists, fillings, bases and toppings, instant pasta and sauces, ice creams, icings, confectionery, cottage cheese and cream cheese spread. It is also used in medication, laxatives and antacids.

E 465 Ethylmethylcellulose

A mixed ether of cellulose, prepared from cellulose by treatment with alkali, dimethyl sulphate and ethyl chloride. Methyl ethyl cellulose has many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fiber, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Used in many products including pasteurized products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods, sterilized, pasteurized and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurized low-fat cream. Also used as a tobacco additive.