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Acai Berry

A superfood that can be eaten whole or juiced; This fruit is typically an inch-long and reddish-purple in color. It comes from the acai palm tree, which is native to Central and South America.


An edible, oval nut with a woody shell. Almonds can be eaten raw or cooked. They can be made into oils, milk, butter, or flour as an alternative to dairy or gluten products.


A small shoaling fish of commercial importance as a food fish and as bait. It is strongly flavored and is usually preserved in salt and oil. Sometimes used in Worcestershire sauce, Barbecue sauces made with Worcestershire, Caesar salad and Caesar dressing


A flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean. It is often used in herbal medicine.

Apples (Raw)

A sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree


A vegetable with thistles, deeply lobed, silvery, glaucous-green leaves. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud with numerous triangular scales; the individual florets are purple. The edible portions of the buds consist primarily of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the “heart”; the mass of immature florets in the center of the bud is called the “choke” or beard. These are inedible in older, larger flowers.


Also known as eggplant. Often considered a vegetable, even though it is a berry by botanical definition. Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines.


They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Often eaten in salads, dips and cooking.

Acetic acid

A colorless, liquid organic compound. It has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. Used in vinegar as a condiment and as a pickling agent.


Known as “whey protein.” It is the albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey. It is a protein that regulates the production of lactose in the milk. Lactalbumin is found in the milk of many mammals, including humans and cows. Used in cheeses, cream, butter, and other products that contain real dairy.


Known as ethanol or ethyl alcohol, it is the ingredient found in beer, wine, and spirits that causes drunkenness.


A type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. Historically, the term referred to a drink brewed without hops. There are many types of ales, including pale ale, brown ale, Indian pale ale (IPA), and more.

Apple Juice

A fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting expelled juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate.


A juicy, soft fruit. They are orange-yellow in color. The flesh is usually firm and not very juicy. Its taste can range from sweet to tart. The single seed is enclosed in a hard, stony shell, often called a “stone” or “kernel”, with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side


The young shoots of a Eurasian plant. Asparagus has been used as a vegetable and medicine, owing to its distinct flavor, diuretic properties, and more.



Cured meat from the sides and belly of a pig, having distinct strips of fat and typically served in thin slices. Eaten cooked. Items can be flavored with bacon as well.


A member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

Bay Leaf

An aromatic leaf commonly used in cooking. It can be whole or ground dried pieces of the plant. It comes from several plants. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood, vegetable dishes, and sauces.

Beans (green)

Long, thin green in color. They are distinguished from the many other varieties of beans in that green beans are harvested and consumed with their enclosing pods, before the bean seeds inside have fully matured. They can be called French beans, string beans, snap beans, and snaps.

Beans (white)

White beans come from the flowering plants of the legume family. Popular varieties include the navy bean (also called white pea bean, small white bean, Great Northern bean, Boston bean, Yankee bean or fagioli), which is small and cooks relatively quickly.

Beef Jerky

A lean cut of meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before enough moisture has been removed. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Some product manufacturers finely grind meat, mix in seasonings, and press the meat-paste into flat shapes prior to drying.

Beets (beetroot)

A dark red, rounded vegetable. Also known as table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. Other than as a food, beets have use as a food coloring and as a medicinal plant. Usually eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable.

Bell pepper (Orange)

Orange bell peppers has thick flesh and is much sweeter than the green, but it is not as sweet as the red ones.

Bell pepper (Yellow)

Less bitter and more sweet than green peppers.

Blackberries (Cooked)

Edible soft fruit. Often purple-black. They contain numerous seeds. When cooked, they become softer.

Braeburn apple

A cultivar of apple that is firm to the touch with a red/orange vertical streaky appearance on a yellow/green background. Its color intensity varies with different growing conditions.

Bread (rye)

A type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat flour. It is higher in fiber than white bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor.

Bread (white)

Made from wheat flour from which the bran and the germ layers have been removed (and set aside) from the whole wheatberry as part of the flour grinding or milling process, producing a light-colored flour. The flour used in white breads are bleached further—by the use of chemicals such as potassium bromate, azodicarbonamide, or chlorine dioxide gas to remove any slight, natural yellow shade and make its baking properties more predictable.

Brussel Sprouts

Small, leafy green vegetables that typically look like miniature cabbages.


A dairy product with high butterfat content. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water. Most frequently made from cow’s milk, but it can be made from another mammal’s milk.

Butter lettuce

This type is a head lettuce with a loose arrangement of leaves, known for its sweet flavor and tender texture.

Button mushroom

An edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. It has two color states while immature—white and brown—both of which have various names. When mature, it is known as portobello mushroom.


The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe.


A tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia. It is a tender plant and is used in cuisines worldwide. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell. Basil is most commonly used fresh in recipes. In general, it is added at the last moment, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto—a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce.

Beans (broad)

Small, flat beans. Green in color, also called fava beans. The beans with the outer seed coat removed, can be eaten raw or cooked. In young plants, the outer seed coat can be eaten, and in very young plants, the seed pod can be eaten.

Bean (lima)

Small, kidney shaped beans – grown in the pod. Although it is considered a legume and is a protein, it is used as a vegetable in cooking. Also known as a butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean.


The flesh of different cuts of cattle.


An alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented malt flavored with hops. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavors and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavoring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops.

Bell pepper (Green)

Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter.

Bell pepper (Red)

Red bell peppers are simply ripened green peppers. The sweetest of bell peppers.


Very small, dark blue berries. They are different from North American blueberries, although the species are closely related. Bilberry are non-climacteric fruits with a smooth, circular outline at the end opposite the stalk, whereas blueberries retain persistent sepals there, leaving a rough, star-shaped pattern of five flaps. Bilberries grow singly or in pairs rather than in clusters, as blueberries do, and blueberries have more evergreen leaves. Bilberries are dark in color, and usually appear near black with a slight shade of purple.

Boiled Milk

Milk which has been heated to boiling point.

Brazil nut

A large, three-sided South American nut. Often found in mixed nuts.

Bread (baguette)

A long, thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law). It is distinguishable by its length and crisp crust.

Bread (brown)

A designation often given to breads made with significant amounts of whole grain flour, usually wheat, and sometimes dark-colored ingredients such as molasses or coffee.


A plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. Buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel, knotweed, and rhubarb. Can be made into noodles, pancakes, porridge, and more.

Butter (salted)

Butter that consists of butterfat, milk proteins, water, and added salt.


The liquid left behind after churning butter out of cultured cream. Buttermilk can be drunk straight, and it can also be used in cooking.


Cabbage (Red)

Also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation. Its leaves are colored dark red/purple. However, the plant changes its color according to the pH value of the soil, due to a pigment belonging to anthocyanins.

Chamomile Tea

The plant is used to flavor foods, in herbal teas, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep.


Crescent-shaped achenes, with five pale ridges. The fruits, usually used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils, mostly carvone, limonene, and anethole. Caraway is used as a spice in breads, especially rye bread.


A root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.


Edible variety of cabbage. Has a large white head and green leaves.


A sparkling wine made with grapes from the Champagne region of France.


A glossy brown nut that may be roasted and eaten. Chestnuts can be dried and milled into flour, which can then be used to prepare breads, cakes, pies, pancakes, pastas, polenta, or used as thickener for stews, soups, and sauces.


A bird used for meat or eggs. Most common type of poultry.

Chicory Lettuce

A mildly bitter type of lettuce popular in Italy and widely available in the USA. There are also cultivars with red stems, and sometimes white ones will show red streaks. Chicory is generally used raw to pep up salads with fairly heavy dressings but can also be cooked and will then be milder.


An edible mollusk. Clams can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried. They can also be made into clam chowder, clams casino, Clam cakes, stuffies, or they can be cooked using hot rocks and seaweed in a New England clam bake.


The dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids (a mixture of nonfat substances) and cocoa butter (the fat) can be extracted. Cocoa beans are the basis of chocolate, and Mesoamerican foods including tejate, a pre-Hispanic drink that also includes maize.

Coconut oil

The fatty oil obtained from the coconut and used in candies, confections and in cosmetics.

Cod liver oil

Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish. Cod liver oil for human consumption is pale and straw colored, with a mild flavor. As with most fish oils, it contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

Coffee substitute made from barley

A coffee substitute. Usually made without caffeine. Coffee substitutes are sometimes used in preparing foods served to children or to people who avoid caffeine, or in the belief that they are healthier than coffee.

Condensed milk

Usually made from cow’s milk by removing water. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.


A breakfast cereal made with toasted flakes of corn. There are many generic brands of corn flakes produced by various manufacturers. As well as being used as a breakfast cereal, the crushed flakes can be a substitute for bread crumbs in recipes and can be incorporated into many cooked dishes.


Very small, red colored fruit. Fresh cranberries are hard, sour, and bitter.


Fast growing, edible herb. Garden cress is added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor. It is also eaten as sprouts, and the fresh or dried seed pods can be used as a peppery seasoning (haloon).


Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called “separators”.

Cranberry juice

Juice made by squeezing the fruit.


Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called “separators”.


Fast growing, edible herb. Garden cress is added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor. It is also eaten as sprouts, and the fresh or dried seed pods can be used as a peppery seasoning (haloon).

Currants (red & black)

Dried berries of the small, sweet, seedless grape cultivar ‘Black Corinth.’ When dried, they are used in cooking, especially baking and are a major ingredient of currant slice (or currant square) and currant cake.

Cabbage (White)

Round and firm with tightly packed, pale-green leaves. Their sweet, mild taste makes them excellent in salads such as coleslaw.


The fruit has distinctive ridges running down its sides (usually five but can occasionally vary); when cut in cross-section, it resembles a star, hence its name. The entire fruit is edible and is usually eaten out of hand. They may also be used in cooking and can be made into relishes, preserves, and juice drinks.


Used as flavorings and cooking spices in both food and drink, and as a medicine. E. cardamomum (green cardamom) is used as a spice, a masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked.

Cashew nut

Edible kidney shaped nut. Rich in oil and protein. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter.

Celery (Raw)

A cultivated plant of the parsley family, with closely packed succulent leafstalks.


A kind of firm smooth yellow cheese, originally made in Cheddar in southwestern England.

Chestnut Mushroom

An edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. It has two color states while immature—white and brown—both of which have various names.


Cultivated legume. High in protein. Also known as garbanzo beans. Chickpeas are a key ingredient in hummus, chana masala, and can be ground into flour and made into falafel. It is also used in salads, soups and stews.


An aromatic spice made from the peeled, dried, and rolled bark of a Southeast Asian tree. Used in cooking/baking.


Cloves are aromatic flower buds used as a spice. Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, and the Near and Middle East countries, lending flavor to meats, curries, and marinades, as well as fruit such as apples, pears or rhubarb. Cloves may be used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages, often combined with other ingredients such as lemon and sugar. They are a common element in spice blends such as pumpkin pie spice and speculoos spices.


The inner flesh of the mature seed forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called “coconut milk” in the literature, and when immature, may be harvested for their potable “coconut water”, also called “coconut juice”.


A large edible marine fish. Cod has a mild flavor and a dense, flaky, white flesh.

Coffee (black)

Black coffee may refer to: Coffee, served as a beverage without cream or milk, and often without sugar as well.


A brown carbonated drink that is flavored with an extract of cola nuts, or with a similar flavoring. Most contain caffeine. Most modern colas contain caramel color, and are sweetened with sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup.


An aromatic culinary herb. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste.


A crustacean with edible flesh. Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in many different ways all over the world. Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species, just the claws or legs are eaten.

Currants (red & black)

Dried berries of the small, sweet, seedless grape cultivar ‘Black Corinth.’ When dried, they are used in cooking, especially baking and are a major ingredient of currant slice (or currant square) and currant cake.


Aromatic seed used as a spice. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Cumin can be an ingredient in chili powder (often Tex-Mex or Mexican-style), and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, bahaarat, and is used to flavor numerous commercial food products.

Cream Cheese

A soft, usually mild-tasting fresh cheese made from milk and cream. Stabilizers such as carob bean gum and carrageenan are typically added in industrial production.


Freshwater crustacean resembling a small lobster. Only a small portion of the body of a crayfish is eaten. In most prepared dishes, such as soups, bisques and étouffées, only the tail portion is served.

Cream Cheese

A soft, usually mild-tasting fresh cheese made from milk and cream. Stabilizers such as carob bean gum and carrageenan are typically added in industrial production.


Aromatic seed used as a spice. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Cumin can be an ingredient in chili powder (often Tex-Mex or Mexican-style), and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, bahaarat, and is used to flavor numerous commercial food products.



Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes

Dry roasted peanuts

The popular nut – roasted. Dry roasting changes the chemistry of proteins in the food, changing their flavor, and enhances the scent and taste of some spices.


Aromatic herb used for flavoring. Fresh and dried dill leaves are widely used as herbs in Europe and central Asia. Like caraway, the fernlike leaves of dill are aromatic and are used to flavor many foods such as gravlax (cured salmon) and other fish dishes, borscht and other soups, as well as pickles.


A water bird, known for its short legs and webbed feet. Duck meat is derived primarily from the breasts and legs of ducks. The meat of the legs is darker and somewhat fattier than the meat of the breasts, although the breast meat is darker than the breast meat of a chicken or a turkey. Being waterfowl, ducks have a layer of heat-insulating subcutaneous fat between the skin and the meat.


E 100 Curcumin

A bright yellow chemical produced by some plants. The most common applications are as an ingredient in dietary supplement, in cosmetics, and as flavoring for foods, such as turmeric-flavored beverages in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. As a food additive for orange-yellow coloring in prepared foods, its E number is E100.

E 102 Tartrazine

A synthetic lemon-yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring. A commonly used color all over the world, mainly for yellow, and can also be used with Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1, E133) or Green S (E142) to produce various green shades.

E 110 Sunset yellow FCF

A petroleum-derived orange azo dye. When added to foods sold in the US it is known as FD&C Yellow 6; when sold in Europe, it is denoted by E Number E110. Sunset Yellow is used in food, cosmetics, and drugs. For example, it is used in candy, desserts, snacks, sauces, and preserved fruits. Sunset Yellow is often used in conjunction with E123, amaranth, to produce a brown coloring in both chocolates and caramel.

E 120 Cochineal, carminic acid, carmine

A pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminum salt of carminic acid. The pigment is produced from some scale insects. It is routinely added to food products such as yogurt, candy and certain brands of juice, the most notable ones being those of the ruby-red variety.

E 122 Carmoisine

An azo dye produced only by chemical synthesis as a disodium salt. In its dry form, the product appears red to maroon. It is mainly used in foods which are heat-treated after fermentation. Used in blancmange, marzipan, Swiss roll, jams and preserves, sweets, brown sauce, flavored yogurts, packet soups, jellies.

E 124 Ponceau 4R

A strawberry red azo dye which can be used in a variety of food products and is usually synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons Can be found in salami, tinned fruits, dessert mixes, or soups.

E 128

A synthetic red azo dye. It is used as a synthetic coloring agent in food and drink products. The common name for E128 is Red 2G.

E 131 Patent blue V

A dark bluish synthetic triphenylmethane dye used as a food coloring. It can be found in Scotch eggs, certain jelly sweets, blue Curaçao, and certain jello varieties.

E 133 Brilliant blue FCF

A synthetic dye produced by the condensation of 2-formylbenzenesulfonic acid and the appropriate aniline followed by oxidation. It is often found in cotton candy, ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blueberry flavored products, children’s medications, dairy products, sweets, soft drinks, and drinks, especially the liqueur Blue Curaçao. It is also used in soaps, shampoos, mouthwash and other hygiene and cosmetics applications.

E 1404 Oxidierte starch

Prepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidized. Used as a thickening agent and stabilizer. Often used to thicken instant desserts.

E 1410 Monostarch phosphate (modified starch)

As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas.

E 1413 Phosphatized di-starch p. (modified starch)

A modified resistant starch. It is derived from high amylose maize starch. It is currently used as a food additive and as a freeze-thaw-stable thickener (stabilises the consistency of the foodstuff when frozen and thawed). It is used in products such as soups, sauces, frozen gravies and pie fillings.

E 142 Green

A green synthetic coal tar dye found in desserts, gravy granules, ice cream, mint sauce, sweets, packet breadcrumbs, cake mixes and tinned peas.

E 1422 Acetylated di-starch adipate (modified starch)

A starch that is treated with acetic anhydride and adipic acid anhydride to resist high temperatures. It is used in foods as a bulking agent, stabilizer and a thickener. Used predominately in frozen cakes, dry mixes (cupcakes, muffins, cakes, cookies, and self-saucing puddings), flavored toppings and sauces, breakfast cereals, custard powders, mayonnaises and salad dressings. Also used in soups, vegetable and meat sauces, ketchup, and fruit concentrates, jams, marmalades, jellies, and purees, desserts, whipped creams, pies and fillings, and instant beverages, fermented milk, drinking yogurt, flavored milks, pre-cooked pastas and noodles, sausages, meat balls, fish balls.

E 1442 Hydroxypropyl di-starch phosphate (modified starch)

Prepared by treating starch with propyleneoxide and phosphoric acid. The resulting starch is more stable against acid, alkaline and starch degrading enzymes. It also provides better color and shine to products and has very good freeze-thaw properties.

E 150 Caramel Brown to black color

Gives a dark brown color to food and are produced by heat treatment of sucrose. These colorings can sometimes add a bitter taste to food products containing them. E150 can also act as an emulsifier in soft drinks.

E 150 d Sulphite-ammonia Caramel

A water-soluble food coloring. It is made by heat treatment of carbohydrates, in general in the presence of acids, alkalis, or salts, in a process called caramelization. It is more fully oxidized than caramel candy and has an odor of burnt sugar and a somewhat bitter taste.

E 151 Brilliant black BN, black PN

Used in decorations and coatings, desserts, fish paste, flavored milk drinks, ice cream, mustard, red fruit jams, sauces, savory snacks, soft drinks, soups and sweets.

E 152 Vegetable carbon

Vegetable carbon is produced by steam activation of carbonized vegetable material2. It can used both as a food coloring and as a medication (it can be used to absorb chemicals).

E 160 a Carotene (mixed carotene, Beta-Carotene)

Natural color isolated from several plants; however, it is obtained commercially from carrots. Used in margarine, shortening, butter, cheese, baked goods, confections, ice cream, eggnog, macaroni products, soups, juices, beverages, dairy products, bakery products, meat, seafood, snack food, fruit preparations, and convenience foods.

E 161 b Lutein

Synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and yellow carrots. Yellow food coloring. Rarely used. If used only in soups and alcoholic beverages.

E 162 Beetroot red (betanin)

A red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. The most common uses of betanins are in coloring ice cream and powdered soft drink beverages; other uses are in some sugar confectionery, e.g. fondants, sugar strands, sugar coatings, and fruit or cream fillings. In hot processed candies, it can be used if added at the final part of the processing. Betanin is also used in soups as well as tomato and bacon products.

E 170 Calcium carbonate

A common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which is a type of sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcite) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggs. Can be found in biscuits, bread, cakes, ice cream, sweets, vitamin and other tablets and to firm canned fruit and vegetables, it is sometimes used for to deacidify wine. Also used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders.

E 172 Iron oxides

Natural minerals, but for commercial usage, they are produced chemically from iron powder. They exist in a range of colors. Used in salmon pastes, shrimp pastes, meat pastes, cake and dessert packets, and soups.

E 174 Silver

Obtained from crushed silver bearing ore.  As a food additive it is used solely for external decoration where it can be found on chocolate confectionery, in the covering of dragées and the decoration of sugar-coated flour confectionery.

E 180 Lithol rubine

A reddish synthetic azo dye. It is used to color cheese rind as well as a component in some lip balms

E 203 Calcium Corbat

Made from the neutralization of sorbic acid and is therefore the calcium salt of sorbic acid. Used in dairy products, rye bread, frozen pizzas, dessert sauces, dried apricots, fruit salads, gelatin capsules, and other sweets.

E 211 Sodium benzoate

It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams and fruit juices, pickles, condiments and yogurt toppings.

E 214 Ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate

An ethyl ester resulting from the formal condensation of the carboxy group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with ethanol It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an antifungal agent, a plant metabolite and a phytoestrogen. Used in alcoholic beverages such as red wine, white wine, and sake.

E 217 Sodiumpropyl-p-hydroxybenzoate

The sodium salt of propylparaben, a compound, is also used similarly as a food additive and as an anti-fungal preservation agent. Used as a food preservative.

E 219 Sodium methyl-para-hydroxybenzoate

An antifungal synthetic preservative in food products, drugs and cosmetics. Used in baked goods, ice cream, and medicine.

E 221 Sodium sulphite

The sodium salt for sulphurous acid and forms sodium sulphate after reacting with oxygen. The liver reduces E221 to sulphate, for excretion in the urine. Used in beer, bread, caramel, egg yolk products, and salads.

E 223 Sodium metabisulphite

As with other sulphurous acid salts, the chemical’s oxidizing effect has the disadvantage of reducing the vitamin content of the food containing it. Used in vegetables (especially frozen), fruit juice, pickles, frozen shellfish, and dried fruits.

E 226 Calcium sulphite

Used as an antimicrobial synthetic preservative in food products and bleaching agent in sugar production. This chemical has also been used as a firming agent and as a disinfectant. Used in canned fruits, fruit pickles, fruit juice, cider, wine, and vegetables.

E 228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite

It is made by the reaction of sulfur dioxide and potassium carbonate. Used in canned fruit, canned vegetables, fruit juice, fruit jellies, jams, pickles and beer.

E 234 Nisin

A polypeptide antibiotic, made of chains of 34 amino acids. This chemical is a primary metabolite as it is produced by fermentation, during the growth of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. May be obtained naturally (e.g. from milk) and is also chemically synthesized.  Used in beers, tomato paste, canned fruits, and processed cheese products.

E 242 Dimethyl dicarbonate

Acts to inhibit enzymes in soft drinks to prevent spoilage by yeasts. It acts as an alternative preservative to sulphur dioxide in wines. Used in, fruit drinks, wine, and sports drinks.

E 250 Sodium nitrite

A food additive that gives cured meats, such as ham, bacon, hot dogs, frankfurters, smoked fish and corned beef, their characteristic red color and flavor, it inhibits the growth of bacterial spores that cause botulism, a deadly food borne illness, and retards development of rancidity and off-odors.

E 252 Potassium nitrate

Can be obtained from vegetable matter or animal waste. It can also be synthesized industrially by the neutralization of nitric acid by potassium chloride. Used in meat, fish, cheese, and root vegetables.

E 261 Potassium acetate

Potassium salt of acetic acid, an natural acid, present in most fruits. Produced by bacterial fermentation and thus present in all fermented products. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, molasses or alcohol or by chemical synthesis from acetealdehyde. Used in sauces and pickles.

E 270 Lactic acid

Natural acid produced by bacteria in fermented foods. All fermented foods are very rich in lactic acid. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses.

E 281 Sodium propionate

The sodium salt of propionic acid. Although it is also produced through fermentation by bacteria in food; for commercial purpose it is produced through a chemical reaction. Used in baked goods, cheese, and meat preparations, processed meat, and fish.

E 283 Potassium propionate

The potassium salt of propionic acid. Used in processed cheese, bread, meat, flour, and chocolate.

E 297 Fumeric acid

A natural acid present in many fruits and vegetables. Commercially made by fermentation of sugar by fungi or by chemical synthesis. Typical products include bread, fruit drinks, pie fillings, poultry, wine, jams, jelly.

E 301 Sodium L-ascorbate

A highly reactive sodium salt (and one of four mineral ascorbates) of ascorbic acid. Although a natural antioxidant occurring in most fruits and vegetables, E301 can also be produced synthetically from the fermentation and oxidation of glucose, to provide a source of vitamin C. Used in potatoes, tinned fruits, soft drinks, beer, and wine.

E 304 Ascorbyl palmitate/Ascorbyl stearate

A fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid and is produced by the esterification (production of an ester by reacting alcohol and acid) of the fatty acid palmitate and ascorbic acid. Used in processed meat, margarine, and cereal.

E 307 Alpha-tocopherol

Obtained by extraction from vegetable oils, such as wheat and rice germ, and can help prevent oxidation of Vitamin A. Its application to food products is limited by its strong flavor. Used in cheese, soup, animal and vegetable oils, animal and vegetable fats, margarine, and salad dressings.

E 309 Delta-tocopherol

Found in most foods, it is abundant in, whole grain cereals, corn and cottonseed oils, egg yolks, meat and milk.

E 311 Octyl gallate

Octyl gallate is the ester of octanol and gallic acid. Used in cereals, milk, cheese, salad dressings, fats, and oils.

E 315 Erythorbic acid

A vegetable-derived food additive produced from sucrose. Used in dairy-based drinks, processed cheeses, fat spreads, processed fruit, canned vegetables, cereals, sweeteners, vinegars, and mustards.

E 320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

A synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and isobutylene. It retards spoilage due to oxidation in foods. It is used in edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products and polyethylene food wrappers.

E322 Lecithin

Lecithin is present in all living cells and is a significant constituent of nerve and brain cells. Commercial lecithin, most of which comes from soya bean oil, which may be Genetically Modified, contains a mixture of phosphoglycerides containing principally lecithin, cephalin and phosphatidyl inositol. Used in oils, fats, chocolate, ice cream, margarine, mayonnaise, and bread.

E 326 Potassium lactate

The potassium salt of lactic acid. Found in cheese, confectionery, ice cream, fruit jellies, soups, canned fruits.

E 330 Citric acid

It is present in practically all plants, and in many animal tissues and fluids, but it is in particularly high concentrations in lemons and other citrus juices and many ripe fruits. It can be found in a wide range of products, including non-alcoholic drinks, bakery products, beer, cheese and processed cheese spreads, cider, biscuits, cake mixes, frozen fish (particularly herrings, shrimps and crab), ice cream, jams, jellies, frozen croquette potatoes and potato waffles, preserves, sorbets, packet soups, sweets, tinned fruits, sauces and vegetables and wine.

E 332 Monopotassium citrate

As a food additive, potassium citrate is used to regulate acidity and is known as E number E332. Medicinally, it may be used to control kidney stones derived from either uric acid or cystine.

E 335 Monosodium tartrate

Used as an emulsifier and a binding agent in food products such as jellies, margarine, and sausagecasings.

E 337 Sodium potassium tartrate

Acidity regulator and anti-oxidant. Also used as a stabiliser and emulsifier. Use in many products, mainly meat and cheese products.

E 339 Monosodium phosphate

Sodium salts of phosphoric acid. Normal constituent of the body. Commercially produced from phosphoric acid, which is produced from phosphate mined in the US. widely used in soda and cola as an acidifying agent to give tangy flavor.

E 341 Monocalcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is an acidity regulator, used in baking powder and acts as a bread enhancer. It also binds metal ions, increases the activity of antioxidants and stabilises the texture of canned vegetables

E 351 Potassium malate

It is used as acidity regulator or acidifier for use in, for example, canned vegetables, soups, sauces, fruit products and soft drinks. It also acts as an antioxidant and as a food flavor.

E 353 Metatartaric acid

An acid, present in sugar cane and produced from glucose. Used in wine, fruit juices, etc.

E 356 Sodium adipate

Sodium salt of adipic acid, a natural acid present in beets and sugar cane (juice). Used in herbal salts.

E 363 Succinic acid

Natural acid, present in most fruits and vegetables. Commercially synthesised from acetic acid. Used in confectionary and bakery products.

E 401 Sodium alginate

Extracted from brown seaweed. It is used as a stabiliser for ice cream, yogurt, cream, and cheese. It acts as a thickener and emulsifier for salad, pudding, jam, tomato juice, and canned products. It is a hydration agent for noodles, bread, cool and frozen products.

E 403 Ammonium alginate

Extracted from seaweed. Emulsifier and thickening agent. Used in Soft drinks, food colors, icings, etc.

E 405 Propylene glycol alginate

Commonly used as an additive to aid in the processing of foods and improve their texture, flavor, appearance and shelf life.Used in  Ice cream, confectionery, dressings, etc.

E 407 a Eucheuma algae

Treated A type of red seaweed. Can be used as a thickening agent in cosmetics and some foods.

E 410 Locust bean gum

A natural polysaccharide, produced from the carob tree. Acts as thickener, stabilizer, carrier and gelling agent.for many foods.

E 414 Gum Arabic

A natural polysaccharide, produced from the tree Acacia senegal from tropical Africa. Used in soft drinks and gummy sweets such as marshmallow, and gumdrops.

E 417 Tara meal

A natural polysaccharide (glactomannan), obtained from the tree Cesalpinia spinosa native to South America, but also cultivated in the Mediterranean region.

E 420 Sorbitol

A natural carbohydrate alcohol, present in many berries and fruits, e.g., apples, prunes, cherries and grapes. It is commercially produced from glucose (dextrose). Used in many bakery and confectionary products.

E 422 Glycerol

A natural carbohydrate alcohol, which is one of the components of all fats. It is also present in low concentrations in blood. It is commercially produced either synthetically from propene, or by bacterial fermentation of sugars; it is not produced from fat. Used in Bakery and confectionery products.

E 434 Polyoxyethene-sorbitan-monopalmitate (Polysorbate 40)

A synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and palmitic acid (a natural fatty acid). Used in desserts, sugar confectionery.

E 436 Polyoxyethene-sorbitan-tristearate (Polysorbate 65)

Emulsifier and anti-foaming agent. It is commonly used in cake fillings, cake mixes, cakes, frozen custard, frozen desserts, ice cream, and cream substitutes for coffee.

E 442 Ammonium phosphatides

Obtained from ammonia and phosphorylated fatty acids, mainly from rapeseed oil.Found in cocoa and chocolate products.

E 445 Glycerol ester of root

An emulsifier and stabilizer used in the soft drinks industry. Also used in chewing gum and ice cream.

E 451 Triphosphate, Phosphate

It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. Used as a preservative for seafood, meats, poultry, and animal feeds.

E 460 Cellulose

Cellulose is the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood. Found in sauces, soups, breads, biscuits and cakes, frozen desserts, margarine, spreads, jams, chocolate, quick-setting desserts and milkshakes.

E 463 Hydroxypropylcellulose

Hydroxy propyl cellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically propylated. Found in sterilised, pasteurised and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurised low-fat cream. Also used as a laxative and as an additive to tobacco products and in cosmetics as a binding agent, emulsion stabilizer, film former and viscosity adjuster.

E 465 Ethylmethylcellulose

A mixed ether of cellulose, prepared from cellulose by treatment with alkali, dimethyl sulphate and ethyl chloride. Methyl ethyl cellulose has many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fiber, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Used in many products including pasteurized products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods, sterilized, pasteurized and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurized low-fat cream. Also used as a tobacco additive.

E 470 Sodium

Fatty acids are natural elements of fats and oils. Salts of natural fatty acids are mainly derived from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. Used in cake mixes and oven ready chips.

E 471 Mono- and diglyceride

Manufactured from glycerin (see E422) and fatty acids, these are normally obtained from hydrogenated soya bean oil and as such may be genetically modified. Used where the foaming power of egg protein needs to be retained in the presence of fat and in baked goods as an ‘anti-staling’ agent where it prevents the loss of water from starches.

E 472 b Lactic acid esters of mono and diglycerides

Used as a stabilizer – included in low calorie spreads, peanut butter and ice cream to control their texture, starch-based foods such as macaroni, noodles, potato products and in the bakery industry.

E 472 d Tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides

Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. Emulsifier, stabilizer, coating agent, texture modifier, solvent and lubricant. Used in high fat bread, edible fats, whipped fats and meat products.

E 472 Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters

Consists of esters of glycerol with fatty acids of food fats, acetic acid and tartaric acid. It may contain small amounts of free glycerol, free fatty acids, free acetic acid, free tartaric acid and free glycerides. Found in processed bread and some other products.

E 474 Sucroglycerides

Obtained by reacting sucrose with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent. Used as an emulsifier, stabilizer and thickener – found in many dairy based products.

E 476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate

Produced from castor oil and glycerol esters. It is used to help reduce the viscosity of molten chocolate, so improving the fluidity and enabling thinner coatings.  Mainly used in icings, toppings and in cake mixes.

E 479 Thermo-oxidized soya oil

Found in margarine and similar fat emulsions for frying purposes.

E 482 Calcium stearyol

Similar to E481 but with calcium as the added mineral instead of sodium. Lactic acid in commercial food is produced either by chemical synthesis or from bacterial fermentation of a carbohydrate such as corn sugar. It is considered safe for a milk allergic individual. Used as a conditioner in dehydrated potatoes (instant mashed potatoes) and helps to prevent staling in bread.

E 492 Sorbitan tristearate

Sorbitan tristearate is used as an emulsifier and stabilizer. It is produced by the esterification of sorbitol with commercial stearic acid derived from food fats and oils. Used in bakery products, toppings and coatings, fat emulsions, milk and cream analogues, beverage whiteners, edible ices, desserts, sugar confectionery including chocolate, emulsified sauces, dietary food supplements, chewing gum and dietetic foods.

E 494 Sorbitan mono-oleate

Emulsifier and stabilizer – found in numerous different products including baked goods.

E 500 Sodium carbonate

Produced from seawater or salt. Natural minerals. Acidity regulators, alkali, and rising agent.

E 503 Ammonium carbonate

Produced from ammonium sulphate and calcium carbonate, natural minerals. Used as a leavening agents baking soda and baking powder.

E 508 Potassium chloride

Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Used in many salt-free/sodium-free/low-sodium products.

E 511 Magnesium chloride

Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Used in sterilizing vegetables

E 513 Sulphuric acid

Used in the brewing process to reduce the loss of sugars from the barley. The acid does not remain in the final product. Used in beer and cheese products.

E 515 Potassium sulphate

Prepared from potassium salts and sulphuric acid. Natural mineral. Used for treatment of water used for brewing; salt replacer. Beer, low-sodium products

E 520 Aluminum sulphate

Natural mineral, from which the commercial product is purified. Used to precipitate protein, for example during the beer brewing process. It also strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. Beer, pickled vegetables, proteins.

E 522 Aluminum potassium sulphate

Helps to ensure food has the desired texture. Used in egg whites and glazed fruits.

E 524 Sodium hydroxide

Prepared from natural salt. Used in many products, including bakery products, cocoa products, coffee creamer, and black olives.

E 526 Calcium oxide

Prepared from the natural salt calcium oxide. Used in cheese, cocoa products, wine, nutmeg, sweet frozen products, dried fish.

E 535 Sodium ferrocyanide

Prepared from hydrogen ferrocyanide and sodium hydroxide. Used as metal binder and anti-caking agent. Used as a salt.

E 541 Sodium aluminum phosphate

Used as acids for baking powders for the chemical leavening of baked goods. Also used in processed cheese.

E 555 Aluminum Potassium silicate

Produced from several natural minerals. Used in some dry products, but hardly used.

E 558 Bentonite

A natural type of clay from volcanic origin. Used as anti-caking agent and emulsifier. Also used as clarifying agent in fruit juice preparations. Used in fruit juices and aromas. Main use, however, is in cosmetics.

E 574 Gluconic acid

Synthetic, or produced by fungi from sugar. Used in fruit juices and jelly-powder.

E 578 Calcium gluconate

Calcium salt of gluconic acid. Anti-caking agent and strengthens the structure of canned vegetables. Used in pudding powders, custard, canned vegetables, and bakery products.

E 585 Iron-II-lactate

Iron salt of lactic acid. Iron supplement in Infant formula.

E 621 Monosodium glutamate

Sodium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Flavor enhancer. Glutamic acid and glutamates have the specific umami taste and enhance many other flavors, thereby reducing the amounts of salt needed in a product.

E 623 Calcium diglutamate

Calcium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Mainly used in low salt (low sodium) products.

E 625 Magnesium diglutamate

Magnesium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Hardly used, only in low sodium meat products.

E 627 Sodium guanylate

Sodium salt of guanylic acid, a natural acid, which is part of RNA, one of the genetic carrier molecules in the cell. It is thus part of all cells in all living organisms. Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines.

E 629 Calcium guanylate

Calcium salt of guanylic acid. Flavor enhancer. Guanylic acid and guanylates do not have the specific umami taste but strongly enhance many other flavors, thereby reducing the amounts of salt needed in a product. Used in many products, mainly in low-salt/sodium products.

E 631 Disodium inosate

Sodium salt of inosinic acid, a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars.

E 633 Dicalcium inosinate

Calcium salt of inosinic acid. Flavor enhancer. Used in many products. Mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

E 635 Disodium 5

Used in many products. Mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

E 901 Bees wax, white and yellow

Natural polymer produces by bees. The white wax is bleached by sunlight or hydrogen peroxide. Coating, in chewing gum and part of honey flavor.

E 901 Bees wax, white and yellow

Natural polymer produced from the Canauba palm (Copernica cerifera ) and related species from Brazil. Used in chewing gum, confectionary, coffee, and bakery products.

E 912 Montanic acid ester

Wax obtained by solvent extraction of lignite (brown coal). It consists of non-glyceride carboxylic acid esters, free acids and resins. Coating for citrus fruits.

E 938 Argon

Natural inert gas. Found in canned products.

E 951 Aspartame

Has a calorific value, the tiny amount needed to create a sweetened taste results in a negligible calorie content in the food product. Used in sweets, diet foods, and soft drinks.

E 953 Isomalt

Consists of sugar being converted to isomaltulose, then hydrogenated to form isomalt. Sweetener found in boiled sweets, toffee, lollipops, fudge, wafers, cough drops, throat lozenges, and a wide variety of other products.

E 957 Thaumatin

A protein that originates from the tropical fruit, Thaumococcus danielli. It can be up to x2000 sweeter than sugar, although it conveys a slightly different and more slowly developing taste. Used in bread, fruit, and wine.

E 965 Maltit

A sugar alcohol which has a lower calorie content than sugar. Used in diet foods.

E 967 Xylitol

A carbohydrate alcohol derived from corn, raspberries, lettuce and plums. Used in chewing gum, ice-cream, jam, and bakery products.

Edamame beans

The immature soya bean – usually steamed in pod and eaten directly from the pod.

Egg white

The clear, viscous substance surrounding the egg yolk. Turns white when cooked or beaten.

Escarole lettuce

A bitter green commonly used in Sicilian cuisine; related to chicory and not commonly found in American dishes. This leafy, dark green offer many of the nutritional benefits of other, more common greens, including spinach, romaine and kale.

E 101 Riboflavin

Also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains. As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines. It may be given by mouth or injection. As a food additive, it is used as a deep yellow – orange – red food coloring.

E 104 Quinoline yellow

A mixture of organic compounds derived from the dye Quinoline Yellow SS (Spirit Soluble). Quinoline Yellow is permitted in beverages and is used in foods, like sauces, decorations, and coatings; Quinoline Yellow is not listed as a permitted food additive in Canada or the US, where it is permitted in medicines and cosmetics and is known as D&C Yellow 10.

E 1105 Lysozyme

An enzyme, that is commercially prepared from chicken eggs or by bacteria. One of the most powerful natural antibacterial and antiviral compounds known to man, has been used in foods and pharmaceuticals for over three decades as it naturally inhibits the growth of many spoilage organisms, increases a healthy shelf life and ensures food safety.

E 1200 Polydextrose

A synthetic polymer of glucose. It is a food ingredient classified as soluble fiber by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as Health Canada, as of April 2013. It is frequently used to increase the dietary fiber content of food, to replace sugar, and to reduce calories and fat content. It is a multi-purpose food ingredient synthesized from dextrose (glucose), plus about 10 percent sorbitol and 1 percent citric acid. Its E number is E1200.

E 123 Amaranth

An anionic dye. As a food additive it has E number E123. Amaranth usually comes as a trisodium salt. It has the appearance of reddish-brown, dark red to purple water-soluble powder. Can be found in cake mixes, jelly crystals, wine, spirits, soups, and desserts.

E 127 Erythrosine

An organoiodine compound, specifically a derivative of fluorone. It is cherry or melon-pink synthetic, primarily used for food coloring. Commonly used in sweets such as some candies and popsicles, and even more widely used in cake-decorating gels. It is also used to color pistachio shells.

E 129 Allura red AC

It is usually supplied as its red sodium salt, but can also be used as the calcium and potassium salts. It is used in many products, such as cotton candy, soft drinks, cherry flavored products, children’s medications, and dairy products. It is by far the most commonly used red dye in the United States.

E 132 Indigo Carmine

An organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation, which renders the compound soluble in water. It is approved for use as a food colorant. Used in ice-cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionery, and biscuits.

E 140 Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins

Natural green color, present in all plants and algae. Commercially extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa. Used in pasta, absinthe, cheeses, preserved vegetables, jams, jellies and marmalades.

E 141 Chlorophylls

Synthetic copper complex of chlorophyll (E140), a natural green color, which is present in all plants and algae. E141 is commercially extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa. Due to chemical de-esterification of chlorophyll, phaeophytins are formed. Used in sweets, soups, ice creams, and preserved green fruits and vegetables.

E 1412 Di-starch phosphate (modified starch)

Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent.

E 1414 Acetylated di-starch phosphate (modified starch)

Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent and acetic acid. The resulting starch has increased stability and dissolves better at low temperatures. Used in yogurt, puddings, mayonnaise, canned foods, ice cream, frozen microwave noodle, sauce, salad dressing, seasoning, and tarre juice.

E 1420 Acetylated starch (modified starch)

Can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, binder, emulsifier during food and cosmetic processing. Used in ketchups, sauces, mayonnaises, semi-finished products, horticultural preserved products, marmalades, jams, spices, different products made of fruits and ice-cream.

E 1440 Hydroxypropyl starch (modified starch)

Obtained by treatment of corn or wheat starch with heat, alkali, acids or enzymes. Used in food thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers and texturizers in various commercial foods: baked goods, ice creams, jams, canned foods, confections, sauces, etc.

E 1450 Starch sodium octenylsuccinate (modified starch)

Salt of starch octenylsuccinate which exhibits emulsifying properties is used as food additive and is also recommended as yolk replacer in the process of mayonnaise production.

E 150 b Sulphite lye Caramel

Complex brown color mixture, made by dry heating and burning of sugars in the presence of alkali, ammonia, sulphite or combinations thereof. Used in brown bread, buns, chocolate, biscuits, brandy, chocolate flavored flour-based confectionery, coatings, decorations, fillings and toppings, crisps, fish spreads, frozen desserts, pickles, sauces and dressings, cola drinks, sweets, vinegar, whisky.

E 1505 Triethyl citrate

An ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive to stabilize foams, especially as whipping aid for egg white.

E 1518 Glycerin triacetate (Triacetin)

It is the triester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride. Used as a fungicide, humectant and solvent for flavors derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US, essences, cigarette filters.

E 154 Brown FK

A brown mixture of six synthetic azo dyes, with addition of sodium chloride, and/or sodium sulfate. Used in smoked and cured mackerels and other fish and also in some cooked hams and other meats.

E 160 c Capsanthin, Capsorubin

Used widely in poultry feed to deepen the color of egg yolks it can also be found in cheese slices and chicken pies.

E 161 g Canthaxanthin

Found in some mushrooms, crustaceans and fish, so vegetarians beware, but it is normally obtained commercially from beta-carotene. Used in such products as chicken in breadcrumbs, fish fingers, mallow biscuits, pickles and preserves, sauces and sweets it is also fed to farmed salmon and trout to enhance the color of the flesh. Fed to laying hens to color egg yolks. It is also used to color the skin in artificial sun-tan products.

E 163 Anthocyanins

Can be derived from a number or sources such as grape skin extract, blackcurrant extract, purple corn color, and red cabbage color. Used in dairy products, soups, glacé cherries, sweets, pickles, jelly, and soft drinks.

E 171 Titanium dioxide

A natural color found as chalk, limestone, marble, dolomite, eggshells, and the shells of many marine animals.             Used in biscuits, breads, cakes, ice-cream, sweets, vitamins and other tablets, canned fruit and vegetables, wine.

E 173 Aluminium

A naturally occurring silvery-white metal smelted from the ore, Bauxite. Because of its chemical form, aluminium never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to varying degrees in almost all rocks, vegetation, and animals. Used in tablets, sugar-coated flour, confectionery, and cake decorations.

E 175 Gold

Gold is extracted by the cyanide process (extracting gold from its ore by treatment with sodium cyanide) or by amalgamation with mercury. Amalgamation involves gold being drawn into mercury to form an alloy – amalgam. The mercury can then be removed by being dissolved in nitric acid, leaving gold. Used in sugar-coated flour confectionery and chocolate confectionary decorations.

E 200 Sorbic acid

Naturally occurs in the fruit of the European Mountain-ash, after which the acid is named. It is commercially produced by several different chemical pathways. Used in a wide range of products, such as yogurt and other fermented dairy products, fruit salads, confectionery, lemonade, cheese, rye bread, cakes and bakery products, pizza, shellfish, lemon juice, wine, cider and soups.

E 210 Benzoic acid

Whilst occurring naturally in many edible berries, fruits and vegetables it is available commercially by chemical synthesis from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia. Can be found in beer, coffee essence, dessert sauces, soft drinks, flavoring syrups, fruit juice, pulp and purée, jam, margarine, marinated herring.

E 213 Calcium benzoate

Benzoic acid, benzoates and benzoic acid esters are commonly found in most fruits, especially berries. In addition to fruits, benzoates occur naturally in mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves and some dairy products (as a result of bacterial fermentation). For commercial purposes, it is prepared chemically from toluene. It is used in soft drinks, fruit juice, concentrates, soy milk, soy sauce and vinegar. It is the most widely used preservative in making bread and other bakery products.

E 215 Sodium ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate

It is used as an antifungal preservative. Found in most fruits, mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves, some dairy products (as a result of bacterial fermentation). For commercial purposes, it is prepared chemically from toluene and then esterified.

E 218 Methyl-para-hydroxbenzoate

Naturally found as a pheromone for a variety of insects and is a component of queen mandibular pheromone. Preservative used in ice cream, alcoholic drinks, medicine, and baked goods.

E 220 Sulphur dioxide

A common substance which also has bleaching effects that are exploited in order to prevent discoloration of products such as flour. It occurs naturally from the combustion of sulphur, hydrogen sulphide or gypsum, and may be considered a pollutant. Used in sausages, burgers, dried fruit, vegetables, and soft drinks.

E 222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite

Prevents oxidation and helps to preserve flavor. prevents oxidation and helps to preserve flavor. Used in wine, canned fruits, frozen shellfish, jams, pickles, vegetables, ciders, and juices.

E 224 Potassium metabisulphite

Used as an antimicrobial, antioxidant synthetic food preservative and bleaching agent in food products. Used in wine, frozen vegetables, frozen shellfish, fruit juice, and pickles.

E 227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite

Used as an antimicrobial synthetic preservative in food products. It can also be used as a firming agent and disinfectant. Used in canned fruit, canned vegetables, fruit juice, fruit jellies, jams, pickles and beer.

E 233 Thiabendazole

A systemic benzimidazole fungicide used to control fruit and vegetable diseases such as mold, rot, blight, and stain. Used in mushrooms, pears, bananas, oranges, potatoes, meat, and milk.

E 239 Hexamethylene-tetramine

Obtained by reacting Ammonia with Formaldehyde. Used as a preservative against fungi in food products such as Caviar, cheese, herring and preserved fish.

E 249 Potassium nitrite

The salt of nitrous acid and is highly oxidizing. Used in meat (smoked, cured and processed), root vegetables, and fish.

E 251 Sodium nitrate

A salt used extensively as a preservative and color fixative of processed meats such as sausage and bacon. Used in meat (smoked, cured and processed), cheese, and root vegetables.

E 260 Acetic acid

The variety of source materials, and the differing organic acids and esters derived from that source material which are also present, that are responsible for the different flavors and aromas of vinegar. Used in beer, bread, cheese, chutney, horseradish cream, pickles, salad cream, brown sauce, fruit sauce, mint sauce and jelly and tinned baby food, sardines and tomatoes.

E 262 Sodium acetate

The sodium salt of acetic acid. Typical use in food products include bouillons. Used as a preservative in liquorice, as a pickling agent and as a flavor-enhancing additive in meat and poultry. A frequent use is to impart a salt and vinegar flavor to potato crisps.

E 280 Propionic acid

Natural acid present in small quantities in many foods, sometimes in high concentrations produced by bacteria in fermented foods, such as types of Swiss cheese. It is also produced on a large scale by the bacteria in the large intestine. It is also a normal component of sweat. Commonly used in bread and flour products.

E 282 Calcium propionate

The calcium salt of propionic acid. This chemical is produced by bacteria, either in the large intestine, or in fermented products. Used in processed cheese, bread, meat, flour, and chocolate.

E 296 Malic acid

Made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Typical products include non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, gelatins, puddings, fillings, hard and soft sweets, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices.

E 300 Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

A natural antioxidant occurring in most fruits and vegetables. E300 can also be produced synthetically from the fermentation and oxidation of glucose. It is a sugar acid that is most commonly used as a bread enhancer by acting as a flour-treating agent. Ascorbic acid also known as Vitamin C, essential for growth, healthy teeth, gums, bones, skin and blood vessels and aiding the absorption of iron, is found naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables. Signs of deficiency – Easy bruising, dry skin, slow metabolism.

E 302 Calcium L-ascorbate

Used as an antioxidant, a color preservative and as a vitamin supplement. It can be found in bouillons, consommés, scotch eggs and other food products.

E 306 Natural tocopherols (Vitamin E)

An antioxidant for polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissue fats and is used in meat pies, desert toppings and vegetable oils as well as a vitamin supplement.

E 308 Gamma-tocopherol

Acts as an antioxidant in fatty products, mostly to prevent olive oil from turning rancid. Used in processed meats, cheese, and vitamin enriched foods.

E 310 Propyl gallate

Produced by the esterification (production of an ester by reacting alcohol and acid) of gallic acid, produced in plant tannins. Used in cereals, milk, cheese, salad dressings, fats, and oils.

E 312 Dodecyl gallate

Synthesized from lauryl alcohol and gallic acid, which is produced from plant tannins. Anti-oxidant in fatty products, especially added to prevent rancidity. Used in oils and fats, margarine, soups, etc.

E 316 Sodium Erythororbate

A Sodium salt of erythorbic acid, a synthetic isomer of vitamin C but with only 1/20 of the vitamin activity. Sodium erythorbate is produced from sugars derived from different sources, such as beets, sugar cane, and corn.

E 321 Butylated hydroxytoluene

A lipophilic organic compound that is used as an antioxidant. BHT is prepared by the reaction of p-cresol (4-methylphenol) with isobutylene (2-methylpropene) catalysed by sulfuric acid. It was patented in 1947 and approved by FDA in 1954 for use in vegetable oils, shortening, lard, fat, margarine, carbonated drinks, cheese spreads, chewing gum, ice cream, dry breakfast cereal.

E 325 Sodium lactate

The sodium salt of Lactic acid. Used in cheese, sponge cakes and Swiss rolls, ice cream, jams, jellies, margarine, marmalades and sweets.

E 327 Calcium lactate

The calcium salt of lactic acid. Used in cream, cheese, ice-cream, soup, baking powder.

E 331 Monosodium citrate

Sodium salts of citric acid, a compound found in every living organism, as it is part of the key metabolic pathways in all body cells. Large concentrations are found in citrus fruits, kiwi, strawberries and many other fruits. Commercially prepared by fermentation of molasses with the mould Aspergillus niger

E 333 Monocalcium citrate

Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive, usually as a preservative, but sometimes for flavor. In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate. Calcium citrate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements.

E 336 Monopotassium tartrate

Potassium tartarate is an acidity regulator and anti-oxidant. Also used in producing baking powder and as emulsifier.

E 338 Orthophosphoric acid

Normal constituent of many fruits and vegetables. Commercially produced from phosphate mined in the US. It increases the permeability of salt in meats and acts as an anti-oxidant. Used in many products, mainly cola, meat and cheese products.

E 340 Monopotassium phosphate

It prevents desiccation and is used as an acid stabilizer in powder

E 350 Sodium malate

A natural acid present in fruit, its alate is used as a buffer and flavouring in soft drinks, confectionery and other foods.

E 354 Calcium tartrate

A byproduct of the wine industry, prepared from wine fermentation dregs. It is the calcium salt of L-tartaric acid, an acid most commonly found in grapes. It finds use as a food preservative and acidity regulator. Used in fish and fruit preserves, seaweed products, pharmaceuticals, etc.

E 355 Adipic acid

Small but significant amounts of adipic acid are used as a food ingredient as a flavorant and gelling aid. Used in mainly confectionery, marmalade and sausages.

E 357 Potassium adipate

It is the potassium salt of adipic acid. Used as a food additive when cooking.

E 380 Triammonium citrate

Helps to keep maintain the correct consistency of cheese spreads. Used in confectionary chocolate and cheese spreads.

E 402 Potassium alginate

Potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polysaccharide, produced by different seaweeds of the family Phaeophyceae. Used Many different products, mainly for low-salt/sodium products.

E 404 Calcium alginate

Thickening agent, emulsifier, prevents crystallisation in frozen products. Used in Ice cream and frozen bakery products.

E 406 Agar

Thickener and vegetable gum derived from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative, found in manufactured meats and ice cream

E 407 Carrageenan

Derived from a red seaweed by heating and converting into a gel. Used to thicken and stabilize processed foods. Also used as an emulsifier in certain products. Used in ice cream, chocolate milk, sherbet, jam, jelly, cheese spread, dressings, crackers, pastries, custard, evaporated milk, whipped cream, infant formula, and soy milk.

E 412 Guar gum

Extracted from the guar bean; made with the ground up guar seeds. Used as a thickener, binder, and stabilizer in a variety of foods. Used in baked goods, cereal, fruit drinks, frozen fruit, cheese spread, dressing, jelly and preserves, yogurt, kefir, sauces, and ice cream.

E 415 Xanthan gum

A polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive. It is an effective thickening agent and stabilizer to prevent ingredients from separating. It can be produced from simple sugars using a fermentationprocess. Commonly used in salad dressings and sauces.

E 418 Gellan

A natural polysaccharide, produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas elodea from starch, and used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener, and gelling agent in food and beverage industry. Used in Dairy products, dressings, juices, etc.

E 421 Mannite

A natural carbohydrate alcohol, present in many plants, e.g., conifers, seaweed and mushrooms. It is commercially produced from glucose (dextrose). Used as an Anti-caking agent, low-calorie sweetener, bulking agent, etc.

E 432 Polyoxyethene-sorbitan-mono-oleate (Polysorbate 20)

Widely used as an emulsifier or solubilizer in a variety of foods including bakery products.

E 435 Polyoxyethene-sorbitan-monostearate (Polysorbate 60)

A synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Various purposes such as to disperse flavors and colors, to make essential oils and vitamins soluble and to improve volume and texture in bakery products.

E 440 Pectin

A natural acid polysaccharide present in nearly all fruits, especially apples, quinces and oranges. It is commercially produced from apple pulp and orange peels. Sodium, potassium, and ammonium pectates are the respective salts of pectin. Amidated pectin is prepared by treating pectin with ammonia, after which amides are formed at the acid side chains. Used in Marmalades, fruit jellies and sauces, and many other different products.

E 444 Sucrose-acetate-isobutyrate

Categorized as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a food additive in cocktail mixers, beer, malt beverages, or wine coolers[2] and is a potential replacement for brominated vegetable oil.

E 450 Diphosphate, Phosphate

Salts of sodium/potassium/calcium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Found in many different products. Various diphosphates are used as emulsifiers, stabilizers, acidity regulators, raising agents, sequestrants, and water retention agents in food processing.

E 452 Polyphosphate

Sequestrants (metal binders), stabilizer and emulsifiers. Also used to retain water during processing and storage.

E 461 Methylcellulose

Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsfier. Used in ice cream or croquette. Methyl cellulose is also an important emulsifier, preventing the separation of two mixed liquids.

E 464 Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

A semisynthetic compound derived from cellulose, the woody material produced by plants. Found in sterilized, pasteurized and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurized low-fat cream, bakery products and in reduced fat products. Also in pharmaceuticals including Multibionta 50+ Probiotic multi vitamin pills, Rhinolast nasal allergy spray and Viagra.

E 466 Carboxymethylcellulose

Used as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions. It is used in drink flavorings, cordials, flavored toppings, breakfast cereals, snack bars, infant formula, frozen cakes, fruit twists, fillings, bases and toppings, instant pasta and sauces, ice creams, icings, confectionery, cottage cheese and cream cheese spread. It is also used in medication, laxatives and antacids.

E 470 b Magnesium salts of edible fatty acids

Magnesium salts of fatty acids are the magnesium salts of natural fatty acids. They are produced mainly from plant origin, but can also be produced from the fats of animals. Used in cake mixes and oven ready chips. Also used extensively in bread and wheat-based bakery goods, which give the home baked taste.

E 472 a Acetic acid esters of mono and diglycerides

Improves aeration properties of high fat recipes and produces a stable foam in whipped products by collecting together the fat globules.

E 472 c Citric acid esters of mono and diglycerides

Formed by esterifying the hydroxyl groups of mono and diglycerides. Used as an emulsifier. A substitute for lecithin (E322) in various applications. Permitted for use in infant formula and follow-on milk and other foods for infants and young children.

E 472 e Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters

Sters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. It is used in crusty breads, such as rye bread with a springy, chewy texture, as well as biscuits, coffee whiteners, ice cream, and salad dressings.

E 473 Sucrose esters

Mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with sugar. Used to stabilize margarine, mayonnaise, soups and dairy desserts. Modify swelled starch in noodles and baked goods. Also, may be found in the following: baking mixes, chewing gum, coffee and tea beverages with added dairy ingredients, frozen dairy desserts and mixes, as a component of protective coatings applied to fresh apples, avocados, bananas, banana plantains, limes, melons (honeydew and cantaloupe), papaya, peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. Also involved in the production of olestra.

E 475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

Combination of polyglycerol and natural fats. Extensively used in icings, toppings and cake mixes, ice cream, other desserts, bakery and pastry products.

E 477 Propane

A combination of propanediol and natural fats. Used in bakery products in cakes and whipped toppings as emulsifiers and aerating agents, soft drinks, ice-cream, and processed meats.

E 481 Sodium stearoyl

Manufactured by the esterification of stearic acid with lactic acid and partially neutralized with either food-grade soda ash (sodium carbonate) or caustic soda (concentrated sodium hydroxide).  Found in bakery products, chewing gum, puddings and gravy.

E 483 Stearyl tartrate

Used as a dough strengthening agent.

E 493 Sorbitan monolaurate

A lipophilic surface-active agent. It is often used as an emulsifier in combination with polysorbates. It is also used to modify crystallization of fats. Used in bakery products, toppings and coatings, marmalade, fat emulsions, milk and cream analogues, beverage whiteners, liquid tea concentrates and liquid fruit and herbal infusion concentrates, edible ices, emulsified sauces, dietary food supplements, chewing gum, dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes.

E 495 Sorbitan monopalmitate

Sorbitan monopalmitate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides with palmitic acid. Used in baked goods and other products.

E 501 Potassium carbonate

Regulates the acidity of foods. Baking powder, baked products, cocoa, chocolate products.

E 507 Hydrochloric acid

Natural acid, normal acid in the stomach. Produced from salt and sulphuric acid. Acidity regulator. Used in cheese and beer.

E 509 Calcium chloride

Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Acidity regulator, enhances firmness in fruits and vegetables, binds metals. Used in many products, also used as calcium source in nutrition supplements.

E 512 Tin II Chloride

Prepared from tin ores and hydrochloric acid. Used in canned beans and asparagus

E 514 Sodium sulphate

Prepared from salt and sulphuric acid. Filling agent and stabilizer. Used in chewing gum and colors.

E 517 Ammonium sulphate

Carriers are substances that can be used to hold other additives. Used in bakery and confectionary products.

E 521 Aluminum sodium sulphate

Prepared from natural aluminum sulphate. It strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. It is used as acidity regulator and bleaching agent in flour. Used in flour, cheese, confectionary

E 523 Aluminum ammonium sulphate

It is used as acid source in baking powder for bakery products, baked at high temperature. It also stabilizes colors.

E 525 Potassium hydroxide

Prepared from the natural salt potassium chloride. Strong alkali used as acidity regulator. Also used to enhance the industrial peeling of fruits and to blacken olives. Bakery products, cocoa products, black olives and the color annatto

E 530 Magnesium oxide

A solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium Used in cocoa products and bakery products.

E 538 Calcium ferrocyanide

Low-sodium salt. A substitute for regular salt.

E 552 Calcium silicate

Produced from chalk and special sand. An additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectionaries to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, and consumption.

E 556 Aluminum Calcium silicate

Anti-caking agent used in some dry products, but hardly used.

E 570 Stearic acid (fatty acids)

A normal part of any fat. Commercially prepared from cottonseed oil, but animal origin cannot be excluded. Used in chewing gum, butter aroma/flavor, bakery products. Also used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations.

E 577 Potassium gluconate

Potassium salt of gluconic acid. Sequestrant (binds metals) in many products. Also used as nutrient for yeast. Used in pudding powders and custard.

E 579 Iron-II-gluconate

Iron salt of gluconic acid. It is a color and a iron supplement. Used in olives and food supplements.

E 620 Glutamic acid

Natural amino acid (building block of protein). Commercially prepared from molasses by bacterial fermentation. Also prepared from vegetable protein, such as gluten, or soy protein. Glutamic acid and glutamates are present in all proteins. Free glutamates are present in high concentrations in ripened cheese, breast milk, tomatoes and sardines.

E 622 Monopotassium glutamate

Potassium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Present in all proteins. Free glutamates are present in high concentrations in ripened cheese, breast milk, tomatoes and sardines.

E 624 Monoammonium glutamate

Ammonium salt from glutamic acid, a natural amino acid (building block of protein). Mainly used in low salt (low sodium) products.

E 626 Guanylic acid

Guanylic acid is a natural acid, which is part of RNA, one of the genetic carrier molecules in the cell. It is thus part of all cells in all living organisms. Commercially prepared from yeast extract or sardines.

E 628 Dipotassium guanylate

Potassium salt of guanylic acid. Used in many products, mainly in low-salt/sodium products.

E 630 Inosinic acid

A natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars.

E 632 Dipotassium inosinate

Potassium salt of inosinic acid. Flavor enhancer. Umami taste. Used in many products. Mainly used in low sodium/salt products.

E 634 Calcium 5

Mixture of calcium salts of guanylic (E626) and inosinic acid (E630). Used in low sodium/salt products.

E 640 Glycine and its sodium salts

A natural amino acid, a building block of protein. Mainly produced from gelatin, partly synthetic. It is a nutrient, mainly for yeast in bread. Also used as a bread enhancer. Used in bakery products.

E 902 Candelilla wax

Natural polymer produced from the Mexican trees Euphorbia antisyphilitica, E. cerifera and Pedilanthus pavonis. Used in chewing gum and confectionary products.

E 904 Shellac

Natural polymer derived from certain species of lice from India. Coating. Used as a confectionery or fruit coating.

E 927 Carbanide

Bread enhancer. Bleaching agent for flour. Not used often.

E 950 Acesulfame K

Can be up to x200 sweeter than natural sugar. It is stable at very high temperatures and so used in many bakery products. It is also often used in conjunction with aspartame. Used in chewing gum, yogurt, alcoholic drinks, and syrup.

E 952 Cyclamate

Approximately x30 sweeter than natural sugar. It is remains stable at high temperatures, which enables it to be used in cooked foods such as bakery products. Used in bakery products and diet foods.

E 954 Saccharin

Most widely used sugar substitute used in soft drinks, medicine, sweets, and toothpaste

E 959 Neohesperidine DC

Produced by the hydrogenation of neohesperidine, which is found naturally in bitter oranges, and may be up to x1800 sweeter than sugar. Used in ice cream, diet foods, and yogurt.

E 966 Lactite

A carbohydrate alcohol derived from lactose in whey (from milk). Used in bakery products, ice-cream, sugar-free and low-calorie foods, and chocolate.

Earl Grey Tea

A tea blend which has been flavored with the addition of oil of bergamot.


Edible slender fish. Often used in Japanese cuisines.

Egg yolk

The yellow part of an egg.

Evaporated milk

Shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing since the added sugar inhibits bacterial growth.


Fennel (Fresh)

Highly aromatic and flavorful herb used in cookery and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, and in soups and fish sauce.


Also known as linseed – used in oils and baking. Its nutty-tasting seeds can be eaten on their own or crushed and cold-pressed to release flaxseed oil. Also used in cereals or bread.

Fig (Fresh or dried)

A soft pear-shaped fruit with sweet dark flesh and many small seeds, eaten fresh or dried.

Fuji apple

Type of apple. They have a dense flesh that is sweeter and crisper than many other apple cultivars, making them popular with consumers around the world.


Gala apple

Type of apple. Gala apples are non-uniform in color, usually vertically striped or mottled, with overall orange color. They are sweet, fine textured, and aromatic,[1] can be added to salads, cooked, or eaten raw, and are especially suitable for creating sauces.


A strong-smelling pungent-tasting bulb, used as a flavoring in cooking and in herbal medicine.


Liquor made from the juniper berry.


Found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).

Golden Delicious apple

Type of apple. A large, yellowish-green skinned cultivar and very sweet to the taste. It is prone to bruising and shriveling, so it needs careful handling and storage. It is a favorite for salads, apple sauce, and apple butter.

Gooseberries (raw)

Small and firm but sometimes ribbed and translucent, gooseberries are a unique little plant-based food growing on relatively small, thorny bushes

Granny Smith apple

Type of apple. The fruit is hard, with a light green skin and crisp, juicy flesh. The flavor is tart and acidic, which possibly limits raw consumption. However, it remains firm when baked, making it a very popular cooking apple used in pies, where it can be sweetened. The apple goes from being completely green to turning yellow when overripe.

Grapes (red)

Can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, grape seed oil, and red wine.


An edible, pale orange tropical fruit with pink juicy flesh and a strong sweet aroma.

Galia Melon

They have a rounded shape, a dense netting of rough lines on the skin, and become yellow at full maturity; they are sweet and aromatic, with a special aroma and flavor.


Gelatin has the E number E 441, it is in almost every gummy confectionery and items like marshmallow, ice cream and even low-fat yogurt.


Hot, fragrant spice. Used as a flavoring mainly but can be found chopped, powdered, preserved or candied.


A domesticated animal. The flesh of this animal can be eaten. It is savory and less sweet than beef but slightly sweeter than lamb. It can be prepared in a variety of ways, such as being stewed, curried, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, or made into sausage.


A species of duck. The meat of the bird is widely eaten. It is dark meat, with an intense flavor more often compared to beef than chicken.

Granary Bread

A type of bread made with malted wheat flakes – this gives the bread a noticeable texture.

Grapefruit (Pink)

Large, round citrus fruit with edible flesh. The taste ranges from highly acidic and somewhat sour, to sweet and tart.

Grapes (white)

Can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, grape seed oil, and white wine.



A flat-fish often boiled, deep-fried or grilled while fresh. Smoking is more difficult with halibut meat than it is with salmon, due to its ultra-low-fat content. Eaten fresh, the meat has a clean taste and requires little seasoning. Halibut is noted for its dense and firm texture.


Small, brown edible nut from the hazel tree. Used in confectionery to make praline, and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur. Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavored and used as a cooking oil.


A sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called honeycombs.


A stabilizing agent in Beer, also used in some deodorants, used in herbal remedies.

Horse radish

A European plant of the cabbage family with long leaves like those of the dock, grown for its pungent edible root. The horseradish root can be scraped or grated as a condiment and often made into a sauce.


Also known as jackrabbits. A larger animal within the rabbit family. Can be prepared in the same manner as rabbits — commonly roasted or parted for breading and frying.


Small, silvery fish. Widely eaten.

Honeydew melon

Popular variety of melon with yellow skin and edible, white flesh.


Flesh from a horse. Has a slightly sweet taste reminiscent of a combination of beef and venison.


Iceberg lettuce

A lettuce of a variety having a dense round head of crisp pale leaves.


Jasmine Tea

A tea scented with aroma from jasmine blossoms to make a scented tea. Typically, jasmine tea has green tea as the tea base; however, white tea and black tea are also used. The resulting flavor of jasmine tea is subtly sweet and highly fragrant.

Jazz apple

Type of apple. It is hard and crisp but juicy. The color is flushes of red and maroon over shades of green, yellow and orange



A kale plant has green or purple leaves and the central leaves do not form a head.


Edible fruit also called a Chinese gooseberry. It has a fibrous, dull greenish-brown skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds.

Karaya gum

a vegetable gum produced as an exudate by trees of the genus Sterculia. Used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, as a laxative, and as a denture adhesive. It is also used to adulterate Gum tragacanth due to their similar physical characteristics.



A sugar present in milk. It is a disaccharide containing glucose and galactose units.


Flesh of a young sheep.


A variety of sweetened drink, characterized by its lemon flavor. Made with water and a sweetener.


The lentil is an edible legume. It is a bushy annual plant known for its lens-shaped seeds.

Lambs liver

The liver of the animal. Widely eaten.


A type of beer conditioned at low temperatures. The term may also be used as a verb to describe the cold-conditioning process. Lagers can be pale, amber, or dark. Pale lager is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer.


A plant related to the onion, with flat overlapping leaves forming an elongated cylindrical bulb which together with the leaf bases is eaten as a vegetable.


Yellow citrus fruit with fragrant acidic juice. Edible flesh.


Cultivated plant eaten in salads mostly. This includes all varieties of lettuce (iceberg, summer crisp, butter head, romaine, loose leaf, lambs, stem)


Large crustacean, flesh eaten cooked.


Macadamia Nuts

Edible nut from the macadamia tree.


This is corn. It is used in products such as corn flakes, polenta, tortillas, and more.

Mango Fruit

Fruit with edible flesh. Often eaten and used in cooking.

Marshmallow Tea

A tea that is thought to help ease digestive complaints. This light green tea has a very agreeable, mellow taste.

Milk (Goat)

Milk from the goat.


A fast-growing cereal plant that is widely grown in warm countries and regions with poor soils. The numerous small seeds are used to make flour or alcoholic drinks.


Molasses or black treacle, is a viscous by-product of refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

Mussel (common)

Mollusk with a brown or purplish-black shell that is sometimes eaten with pasta and sauce.


Flesh of a full-grown sheep.


Frequently eaten fish. Greenish-blue in color.

Maize flour

Maize flour is the entire corn kernel milled into flour

Maple syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.

Milk (Cow)

Milk obtained from dairy cows.

Milk (Sheep)

Milk from the sheep.

Mint (Fresh)

An aromatic plant often used in cooking. It can be used fresh or dried. Fresh mint is usually preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem. The leaves have a warm, fresh, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste, and are used in teas, beverages, jellies, syrups, candies, and ice creams.


A fungi frequently used in cooking.


Hot tasting yellow paste. Eaten and used in cooking.



Made from unleavened dough which is stretched, extruded, or rolled flat. This item is referring to ramen type noodles (found in ready to go noodles – Pot noodles, super noodles)


The hard, aromatic, almost spherical seed of a tropical tree. A very common spice related to mace. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider, mulled wine, and eggnog.



A species of cereal grain grown for its seed. Oats have numerous uses in foods; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola.

Olive Oil

A liquid fat obtained from olives.

Oolong tea

A traditional semi-oxidized Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) produced through a process including withering the plant under strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. Contains caffeine.


A citrus fruit. Round with orange skin and edible flesh.


Edible mollusk with rough, hard shell. Can be eaten raw or cooked.

Olives (green)

Small, edible fruit. Used for oils, cooking, and salad toppings.

Oyster sauce

Usually dark brown, a condiment made from oyster extracts

Oats (porridge)

Made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been milled (ground), steel-cut, or rolled. Also known as Oatmeal in the United States. Commonly eaten for breakfast.


A vegetable also known as ladies’ fingers. Part of the mallow family. Okra leaves may be cooked in a similar way to the greens of beets or dandelions. The leaves are also eaten raw in salads. Okra seeds may be roasted and ground to form a caffeine-free substitute for coffee.

Olives (black)

Small, edible fruit. Used for oils, cooking, salad topping, and pizza topping.


An edible bulb with a pungent taste and smell, composed of several concentric layers, used raw or in cooking.

Orange juice

Juice made by squeezing the fruit sometimes with additives.


A brand of milk flavoring product made with malt extract. Sometimes flavored with cocoa.

Oyster Mushroom

A widely distributed edible fungus that has a grayish-brown, oyster-shaped cap and a very short or absent stem, growing on the wood of broadleaved trees and causing rot.

Ox liver

The liver of the animal. Widely eaten.



Tropical fruit shaped like an elongated melon, with edible orange flesh and small black seeds.


A biennial plant with white flowers and aromatic leaves that are either crinkly or flat and used as a culinary herb and for garnishing food.

Peaches (cooked)

Round, sweet stone fruit with juicy flesh.


A sweet yellowish- or brownish-green edible fruit that is typically narrow at the stalk and wider toward the base, with sweet, slightly gritty flesh.

Peas (field)

Slightly larger than garden peas – grown in pod

Pepper (black)

Dried fruit from the pepper vine family of Piperaceae. Used whole as peppercorns or ground and used in cooking for spice / flavor.

Pepper (bell red)

The pepper – red in color

Peppermint oil

An essential oil, known for giving a cool feel and calming effect on the body.

Pine Nut

The edible seed from various pine trees.

Pineapple juice

Juice made by squeezing the pineapple fruit.


A right-eyed flounder belonging to the Pleuronectidae family. They are a commercially important flatfish which lives on the sandy bottoms of the European shelf. Typically cooked or smoked.

Pomegranate juice

Made from the fruit of the pomegranate. It is used in cooking both as a fresh juice and as a concentrated syrup.

Poppy Seed

Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy. The tiny kidney-shaped seeds have been harvested from dried seed pods. Often used in cooking and baking.

Pork sausages

A cylindrical meat product made from pork, along with salt, spices and other flavorings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin. Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages that are sold raw are cooked in many ways, including pan-frying, broiling and barbecuing. Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may then be removed.


Grown in cooler climates or seasons around the world. They are starchy, enlarged modified stems called tubers, which grow on short branches called stolons from the lower parts of potato plants. Many different types.


An Italian sparkling white wine. Typically served chilled.


A large rounded orange-yellow fruit with a thick rind and edible flesh. Can be boiled, steamed, roasted, or made into desserts.


A powdered spice with a deep orange-red color and a mildly pungent flavor, made from the dried and ground fruits of certain varieties of pepper.


The fruit is a pepo, a type of berry, round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit is both eaten or juiced, the juice often added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma.


Very commonly eaten nut. Eaten raw, also used in cooking.

Peas (garden)

Small, round and green seed. Eaten as a vegetable.

Pecan nuts

Edible, smooth brown nut from the pecan tree.

Pepper (bell green)

The pepper – green in color.

Pepper (white)

Spice made from white peppercorns.

Pig liver

The liver of the animal. Widely eaten.


A juicy, edible tropical fruit somewhat resembling a pine cone: it consists of the fleshy inflorescence of a collective fruit developed from a spike of flowers. The fibrous flesh of pineapple is yellow in color and has a vibrant tropical flavor that balances the tastes of sweet and tart. Typically eaten raw but can also be grilled or a pizza topping.

Pink lady apple

Also called a Cripps pink apple. They have a crunchy texture and a tart taste with a sweet finish.


Oval, fleshy stone fruit. Small and often red or purple in color. Plums can be used raw or in the form of juices, jellies, marmalades and cakes.


A medium size fruit that contains many small red seeds that can be eaten.


The culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. Eaten cooked or preserved.

Portobello Mushroom

The largest type of mushroom. The mature version of cremini mushrooms harvested when they’re fully grown. These large, dark brown mushrooms have an open cap, with visible, deep brown gills on the underside. Unlike its younger counterpart, the portobello has had more time to grow, causing it to lose more of its moisture. Portobello mushrooms are not as watery as cremini and have a slightly more pronounced mushroom flavor. Can be consumed cooked or raw.


A large swimming crustacean.

Prunes (raw)

A plum preserved by drying, having a black, wrinkled appearance.

Pumpkin Seed

The edible seed of a pumpkin. Typically, they are roasted and eaten as a snack or a salad topping.



Similar to the pear in appearance, usually golden-yellow when mature. Some types do not require cooking and can be eaten raw. However, most varieties of quince are too hard, astringent and sour to eat raw unless “bletted” (softened by frost and subsequent decay). They are used to make jam, jelly and quince pudding, or they may be peeled, then roasted, baked or stewed.


A herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass like wheat or rice, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. It’s nutty and fresh, and it has a fine, fluffy texture very similar to couscous. Sometimes served as a side as an alternative to pasta or rice.



A small mammal. A lean source of high-quality protein.


A swollen pungent-tasting edible root, especially a variety which is small, spherical, and red, and eaten raw with salad.

Red kidney bean

A variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is named for its visual resemblance in shape and color to a kidney. Used in many dishes and soups.

Red Leicester

An English cheese, made in a similar manner to Cheddar cheese, although it is crumbly, sold at 3 to 12 months of age. The rind is reddish-orange with a powdery mold on it.


A partially dried grape. Raisin varieties depend on the type of grape used and are made in a variety of sizes and colors including green, black, brown, blue, purple, and yellow.


An edible soft fruit related to the blackberry, consisting of a cluster of reddish-pink drupelets.

Red Wine

A type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines.

Rice (brown)

Whole-grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed; white rice is the same grain with the hull, bran layer, and cereal germ removed

Rice (white)

Milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. This alters the flavor, texture and appearance of the rice and helps prevent spoilage and extend its storage life. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.

Rock candy

A type of confection composed of relatively large sugar crystals. This candy is formed by allowing a supersaturated solution of sugar and water to crystallize onto a surface suitable for crystal nucleation, such as a string, stick, or plain granulated sugar. Food coloring may be added to the mixture to produce colored candy.


A deer that is relatively small, reddish and grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold environments.

Romaine lettuce

A variety of lettuce that grows in a tall head of sturdy dark green leaves with firm ribs down their centers. Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat. Used as a common salad green, and is the usual lettuce used in Caesar salad. Can also be cooked.

Rooibos tea

The tea has a taste and color somewhat similar to hibiscus tea, or an earthy flavor like yerba mate. Does not contain caffeine.


A woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. Fresh or dried rosemary can be added to soups, sandwiches, salads, dips, and even be used for making infused oil.


A distilled alcoholic drink made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. Rums are produced in various grades. Light rums are commonly used in cocktails, whereas “golden” and “dark” rums were typically consumed straight or neat, on the rocks, or used for cooking, but are now commonly consumed with mixers. Premium rums are also available, made to be consumed either straight or iced.

Runner beans

The knife-shaped pods are normally green; however, there are very rare varieties bred by amateurs that have very unusual purple pods. The seeds of the plant can be used fresh or as dried beans. The pods are edible whole while they are young and not yet fibrous. Used in many cuisines.

Red Kidney Bean

a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is named for its visual resemblance in shape and deep red color to a kidney. Red kidney beans should not be confused with other red beans, such as adzuki beans.


A grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, bread, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.



It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. Used in many different cuisines.


A large, edible fish that is a popular game fish, much prized for its pink flesh. Salmon mature in the sea but migrate to freshwater streams to spawn. Classified as an oily fish.

Salt (table)

Used in many cuisines around the world, and it is often found in salt shakers on diners’ eating tables for their personal use on food. Salt is also an ingredient in many manufactured foods.


Italian anise-flavored, usually colorless, liqueur. Its most common variety is often referred to as white sambuca to differentiate it from other varieties that are deep blue in color (black sambuca) or bright red (red sambuca).


A nutrient-rich, small, oily fish. Typically canned with oil.

Sesame seed

Sesame has one of the highest oil contents of any seed. With a rich, nutty flavor, it is a common ingredient in cuisines across the world. Like other nuts and foods, it can trigger allergic reactions in some people. Sometimes sold with the seed coat removed (decorticated); this variety is often present on top of baked goods in many countries.


Crustaceans commonly eaten are shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, and crabs.

Shitake mushroom

An edible mushroom native to East Asia. It is considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine. Can be eaten and used raw, dried, and cooked.


Small crustacean. Usually sold frozen. Eaten many ways.

Smoked herring

Whole fish cold-smoked. Typically it is sautéed with lots of onions, tomatoes, herbs, and hot peppers, and made into a choka or a paste to be eaten with bread or biscuits.


A flat fish that has a mild, buttery, sweet flavor and versatility, and for its ease of filleting.

Sour Cream

A dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, which is called souring. Used as a topping for baked potatoes. It is used as the base for some creamy salad dressings and can also be used in baking, added to the mix for cakes, cookies, American-style biscuits, doughnuts and scones. It can be eaten as a dessert, with fruits or berries and sugar topping.


The protein derived from soybeans, used as a replacement for animal protein in foods and fodder. Uses include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto, and tempeh.

Soy sauce

A liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, and brine. Used in cooking and as a condiment.

Soya Bean

A species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.


A type of wheat, also known as dinkel wheat. The spelt grain – sometimes called “berry”, is the seed of the spelt plant, which is a naturally evolved hybrid of ancient prairie grasses. The seed or grain is what is used to produce spelt flour.


Its leaves are commonly eaten as a vegetable, either fresh, frozen, canned, chopped, or dehydrated.


A cheese known for its strong smell and taste. Produced in two varieties: Blue, known for its characteristic strong smell and taste, and the lesser-known White. Made with a milk pasteurized before use.


A seeded fruit with a bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, juice, pies, ice creams, milkshakes, and chocolates.

Sugar (brown)

A sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content (natural brown sugar), or it is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar (commercial brown sugar).

Sugar (white)

Also called table sugar, granulated sugar or regular sugar. Made either of beet sugar or cane sugar, which has undergone a refining process.

Sunflower oil

The non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower. Refined sunflower oil is used for low-to-extremely-high-temperature cooking. As a frying oil, it behaves as a typical vegetable triglyceride. Unrefined sunflower oil is a traditional salad dressing in Eastern European cuisines. Sunflower oil is also an ingredient in sunflower butter. Can be used for cooking snack foods, such as potato chips or French fries, may use sunflower oil.

Swede (Rutabaga)

Large, yellow fleshed root vegetable. Originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip. The roots are eaten in a variety of ways, and the leaves can be eaten as a leaf vegetable.

Sweet Freedom

A natural liquid alternative to sugar. It’s made from apples, grapes and carob.


Tea (black)

More oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas. Black tea is generally stronger in flavor than the less oxidized teas. Also made from the Camellia Sinensis plant. The type tested for does not include milk or cream.

Tea (green)

Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia Sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong and black tea. A brewed green tea is typically green, yellow or light brown in color, and its flavor profile can range from grass-like and toasted (pan fired) to vegetal, sweet and seaweed-like (steamed). If brewed correctly, most green tea should be quite light in color and only mildly astringent.


A regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant. The white version of tequila, known as silver tequila, is the product obtained without a or with very short aging process. Gold tequila is usually silver tequila with the addition of grain alcohols and caramel color, however, some higher end gold tequilas may be a blend of silver and reposado. The aging process generally imparts a golden color.


A low-growing aromatic plant of the mint family. The small leaves are used as a culinary herb and the plant yields a medicinal oil.

Tomatoes (cooked)

The cooked form of the tomato fruit. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish.

Tomatoes (raw)

The raw form of the tomato fruit. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish.


A European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally. A brown or silver fish with speckles.


Flesh from the turkey bird. Can be eaten many ways.


One of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods. It is used mostly in savory dishes, but also is used in some sweet dishes.


The turnip is a root vegetable with a creamy white color and a purple top, where it has been exposed to the sun. It is a cruciferous vegetable.



Substance from vanilla pods, often used as flavoring. Can be used as the whole pod, extract, sugar, or powder.


Flesh of a baby calf. Often eaten in the form of cutlets.

Vegetable fat I

Fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Can be consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food or can be heated and used to cook other foods.


Meat from a deer. Can be eaten as steaks, tenderloin, roasts, sausages, jerky and minced meat. It has a flavor reminiscent of beef, but is richer and can have a gamey note.

Vinegar (apple cider)

A vinegar made from fermented apple juice. Used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste.

Vinegar (clear)

An aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Usually the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling.

Vinegar (malt)

Malt vinegar is a dark, flavorful vinegar that’s made by malting barley, making the barley into beer, and then turning that beer into vinegar. Its bold, unique flavor makes it a great condiment on French fries or fish and chips—as well as a tasty addition to pickling mixtures.


A distilled alcoholic beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, vodka is made through the distillation of cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented.



Walnut meats are available in two forms; in their shells or shelled. The meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. Walnuts are often candied and may be used as an ingredient in other foods. Walnuts are also popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, and walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods.


A type of melon. Watermelons are a sweet, popular fruit of summer, usually consumed fresh in slices, diced in mixed fruit salads, or as juice.


A rapidly growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plant native to Europe and Asia, and one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans. Used as a salad green with Romaine lettuce or fresh spinach, steamed and eaten as a vegetable, and in soups for a subtle, peppery flavor.

Wheat (ground)

The ground form of a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

Wheat (whole grain)

A grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.


A type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains (which may be malted) are used for different varieties, including barley, corn, rye, and wheat. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, generally made of charred white oak.

White pepper

White tea is harvested before the tea plant’s leaves open fully, when the young buds are still covered by fine white hairs, hence the name “white” tea.

White tea

White tea is harvested before the tea plant’s leaves open fully, when the young buds are still covered by fine white hairs, hence the name “white” tea. Generally lower in caffeine.

White wine

A wine that is fermented without skin contact. The color can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold. It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-colored pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any color.


Term for several species of demersal fish with fins, particularly Atlantic cod, whiting, haddock, hake, pollock, and others. Whitefish is also the name of several species of Atlantic freshwater fish. Whitefish live on or near the seafloor and can be contrasted with the oily or pelagic fish which live in the water column away from the seafloor.



A microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding and are capable of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Used in bread, beer, and wine.

Yerba Mate Tea

A naturally caffeinated tea. Brewed from the naturally caffeinated and nourishing leaves of the species of holly native to the South American Atlantic rainforest (Ilex paraguariensis), it contains 24 vitamins and minerals, 15 amino acids, and abundant polyphenols.