Food Items


  • A-Lactalbumin
  • Ale
  • Acetic acid
  • Almond
  • Aniseed
  • Apples (cooked)
  • Apples (braeburn)
  • Apples (fuji)
  • Apples (gala)
  • Apples (golden delicious)
  • Apples (jazz)
  • Apples (pink lady)
  • Apple Juice
  • Apricots
  • Artichoke
  • Asparagus
  • Aubergine


  • Cabbage (cooked)
  • Cabbage (raw)
  • Cabbage (red)
  • Cabbage (white)
  • Caraway
  • Carrots (cooked)
  • Carrots (raw)
  • Cauliflower (cooked)
  • Cauliflower (raw)
  • Celery (cooked)
  • Celery (raw)
  • Chamomile Tea
  • Cheddar Cheese
  • Cherries
  • Chestnut
  • Chicken
  • Cinnamon
  • Clams
  • Clove
  • Cocoa (with cream and sugar)
  • Cocoa (with milk)
  • Coconut
  • Coconut Oil
  • Cod
  • Cod Liver Oil
  • Coffee (black)
  • Coffee (Substitute made from barley)
  • Cola
  • Corn (maize)
  • Corn Flour (maize flour)
  • Cornflakes
  • Cranberry Juice
  • Crayfish
  • Cream
  • Cream Cheese
  • Cumin
  • Currants (red & black)


  • Earl Grey Tea
  • Eel
  • Egg White
  • Egg Yolk


  • Garlic
  • Gin
  • Ginger
  • Gluten
  • Goose
  • Gooseberries
  • Grapefruit (pink)
  • Grapefruit (white)
  • Grapes (red)
  • Grapes (white)


  • Jasmine Tea


  • Lager
  • Lamb
  • Leek
  • Lemons
  • Lentils
  • Lettuce (butter)
  • Lettuce (chicory)
  • Lettuce (escarole)
  • Lettuce (iceburg)
  • Lettuce (romaine)
  • Lamb’s Liver
  • Lobster


  • Noodles
  • Nutmeg


  • Paprika
  • Parsley
  • Peaches
  • Peanuts
  • Pears
  • Peas (field)
  • Peas (garden)
  • Pecan Nuts
  • Pepper (black)
  • Pepper (red/cayenne)
  • Pig Liver
  • Pine Nut
  • Pineapples
  • Pineapple Juice
  • Pomegranates
  • Pomegranate Juice
  • Pork
  • Potatoes (white)
  • Potatoes (sweet)
  • Prosecco


  • Sage
  • Salmon
  • Salt (table)
  • Sambuca
  • Sardine
  • Sesame Seed
  • Shellfish
  • Shrimp
  • Sole
  • Soy Sauce
  • Soy
  • Spinach
  • Squash (zucchini)
  • Strawberries
  • Sugar (brown)
  • Sugar (white)
  • Sunflower Oil


  • Veal
  • Venison
  • Vinegar (clear)
  • Vinegar (malt)
  • Vodka


  • Yeast
  • Yerba Mate Tea


  • Bacon
  • Banana
  • Barley
  • Basil
  • Bay Leaf
  • Beans (broad)
  • Beans (green)
  • Beef
  • Beer
  • Beets
  • Blueberries
  • Brazil Nut
  • Bread (brown)
  • Bread (rye)
  • Bread (white)
  • Butter
  • Butter (salted)
  • Buttermilk


  • Dates
  • Dill
  • Dry Roasted Peanuts
  • Duck


  • Fig
  • Flaxseed


  • Hazelnuts
  • Herring
  • Honey
  • Honeydew Melon


  • Kiwis


  • Macadamia Nuts
  • Mackerel
  • Maple Syrup
  • Milk (cow)
  • Milk (almond)
  • Milk (coconut)
  • Milk (cashew)
  • Milk (goat)
  • Mik (soy)
  • Millet
  • Mint
  • Molasses
  • Mushrooms (button)
  • Mushrooms (chestnut)
  • Mushrooms (oyster)
  • Mushrooms (portabella)
  • Mushrooms (shitake)
  • Mussels (general)
  • Mustard


  • Onion
  • Oolong Tea
  • Olives (black)
  • Olives (green)
  • Onions (cooked)
  • Onions (raw)
  • Orange Juice
  • Oranges
  • Oyster
  • Ox Liver


  • Rabbit
  • Radish
  • Raisins
  • Raspberries
  • Red Wine
  • Rice (white)
  • Rice (brown)
  • Roolbos Tea
  • Rosemary
  • Rum
  • Rye


  • Tea (black)
  • Tea (green)
  • Tequila
  • Thyme
  • Tomatoes (cooked)
  • Tomatoes (raw)
  • Trout (sea)
  • Turkey
  • Turmeric
  • Turnip


  • Walnuts
  • Watermelon
  • Wheat (ground)
  • Wheat (whole grain)
  • Whiskey
  • Whitefish

Environmental Items



Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa.


Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.

Apple Tree

Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today


Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen


Also known as Aster Root. Flowering plant with purple or pink blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, herbal tea, etc. Vapor inhaled as steam.


Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Major cereal grain. Ranked 4th in quantity produced, behind maize (corn), rice and wheat. Used for medicinal purposes and as a nutritional supplement.

Beech (fagus silvatica)

Fagus sylvatica, the European beech or common beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae

Bermuda Grass

Grass most often recognized by its runners. Used for sports fields, golf courses, lawns, parks, etc.


Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Toxic to humans and cattle when fresh but safe when dried. Dried plants are used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea.


Flying insects that sting. Known for their role in pollination. Includes bumble bees, honeybees, etc. Bee products such as raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, beeswax and apitoxin (bee venom) are used for medicinal purposes, skin, hair, bath, and personal care products, health supplements, etc.


A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams


an animal of the cattle group, which also includes buffaloes and bisons.

Buckwheat (Kootu)

Considered a grain, but actually a fruit seed. Recognized by its broad leaf.. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, skin and hair products. Being gluten-free, it’s an excellent food substitute for wheat, rye, barley and oats.



a type of bird


Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.

Cherry Tree

the tree that bears the cherry


(Mum) Flowering plant with colorful blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc. Also used as an insecticide and for pest control.

Currant Bush

All forms of currant are deciduous shrubs carring the currant fruits


Flowering plant with daisy-like blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin and bath products, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc. Used on wounds and for pain and swelling.

Chicken Droppings

is the feces of chickens used as an organic fertilizer, especially for soil low in nitrogen. Of all animal manures, it has the highest amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium

Chicken Feathers

are feathers that comes from a chicken. The feathers can be heated, mixed with other materials, and molded into plastic. Can also be used in pillows.


Small, low growing plant, found in lawns. Usually has three leaves (considered lucky to find four) and small white or red flowers. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.


Soft, fluffy fiber that grows in a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant. Used to make fabrics, thread, etc.



A flowering plant with colorful spiky blooms. Many different colors. Used in landscaping and floristry. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, herbal tea, etc.

Dead Nettle (Purple Deadnettle)

Common weed with small pink or white tubular blooms and purple or red upper leaves. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes. Leaves used on wounds or cuts.

Deer Epithelium

Allergen attained from direct or indirect contact with the fur/skin of the deer


Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.


Common weed with numerous seeds attached to white, fluffy “parachutes” that disperse in the wind. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.

Dock Plant (Curly dock, Yellow dock)

Common weed with fleshy to leathery leaves. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, coffee substitute, etc. Also used for dye and leather tanning. Broad-leaf dock leaves used on burns, blisters and nettle stings.

Duck Feathers

Tough exterior feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer. Used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.


Elder Plant

Also known as Elderberry. Small shrubs and trees with tiny flowers and berries. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplement, herbal tea, etc. Cooked berries used to make juice, jams, chutneys, pies, syrup and wine.

European Beech

is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae. is a large, graceful tree appropriate for large landscapes like parks and golf courses.


has the widest range of the European elm species, from Ireland eastwards to the Urals, and from the Arctic Circle south to the mountains of the Peloponnese in Greece; it is also found in Iran. It is used both internally and externally in the treatment of diarrhoea, rheumatism, wounds, piles etc and is also used as a mouthwash in the treatment of ulcers.

European Lime (tilia europea)

are deciduous, broadleaf, perennial hybrid trees that grow widely throughout Europe and the United States.


False acacia (Robinia pseudacacia)

Robinia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, native to North America. It is often used in landscaping.

Fireweed / Great Willow Herb

Tall showy wildflower. Named for its ability to grow abundantly on newly burned areas. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes and skin products.


The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela, in the family Mustelidae. Their fur is typically brown, black, white, or mixed. … Ferrets are sexually dimorphic predators, with males being substantially larger than females.


any of a group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, including molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools.



a hardy domesticated ruminant animal that has backward curving horns and (in the male) a beard. It is kept for its milk and meat and is noted for its lively and frisky behavior.

Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea)

is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It is widespread across most of Europe as well as North Africa and northern, central, and southwestern Asia. It is grown as a garden flower with many different cultivars. It flowers profusely in late summer.

Guinea pigs

a tailless South American rodent of the cavy family. Originally raised for food, it no longer occurs in the wild and is now typically kept as a pet or for laboratory research.

Golden Hamsters

a solitary burrowing rodent with a short tail and large cheek pouches for carrying food, native to Europe and northern Asia.

Goose Feathers

Includes outer feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer of feathers which is used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.



Also known as Thornapple. Thorny shrubs or small trees are grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and fruits. Used for medicinal purposes, as an herbal supplement, and in skin products. Also in candied fruit, jam, jelly, and wine.

Hazel (corylus avellana)

A genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut.The pollen of hazel species are often the cause for allergies in late winter or early spring.

Horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum)

A large tree of southeastern Europe that has palmate leaves and erect conical clusters of showy flowers and is widely cultivated as an ornamental and shade tree. It’s flowers grow in large bunches and has large brown seeds.

House Dust Mite

Microscopic animals that feed on decaying matter.

Hop (Humulus Lupulus)

Vining plant in the hemp family with fragrant flower cones, known as hops. The hops are used by breweries to preserve and flavor beer.

Hornbeam (capinus betulus)


A large plant-eating domesticated mammal with solid hoofs and a flowing mane and tail, used for riding, racing, and to carry and pull loads.

Hyacinth (Endymion non-scriptus)

Also known as bluebell. A flowering plant that produces tubular violet-blue blooms. Associated with ancient UK woodland where it produced carpets of “bluebell woods.” Used in medicines.


Japanese Cedar

an Underappreciated Evergreen. … Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) is a handsome evergreen tree, with short, dark to medium green needles clothing short shoots.


Flowering plant with pink, white or yellow blossoms. Used extensively for medicinal purposes, in skin, bath and cleaning products, fragrances, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc.

Japanese Millet

A coarse annual grass (Echinochloa frumentacea) cultivated especially in Asia for its edible seeds

Juniper Bush

Hardy, versatile evergreen shrub used for landscaping.



Tall, slender grass, grazed by sheep and cattle. Used for straw plaiting hats and other similar uses. Also used as a rat killer.

Kentucky Bluegrass

Drought and heat-resistant lawn grass with broad, blunt leaves and blue flower heads (when allowed to grow 2-3 feet).


Laburnum (Laburnum anagyroides)

Any of a small genus (Laburnum, especially L. anagyroides) of poisonous leguminous shrubs and trees of Eurasia with pendulous racemes of bright yellow flowers. The wood is hard and heavy, of a yellow/brown colour, ideal for making posts, for woodturning and as fuel. In the past (and today on historic re-enactments) it was used for making bows.


Flowering shrub or small tree with blooms ranging in color from lilac to mauve or occasionally white. Known for their fragrant scent. Used extensively for medicinal purposes, in skin, bath and cleaning products, fragrances, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc.


Conifers native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larch wood is valued for its tough, waterproof and durable qualities. Top quality knot-free timber is used for building yachts and other small boats, for exterior cladding of buildings, and interior paneling.


Material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide. Used to make footwear, automobile seats, clothing, furniture, etc.


Flowering plant in the legume family with tall, colorful tapering spikes of blooms. Lupin beans are a traditional food in Mediterranean cuisine. Lupine flour or protein is used in baked goods, pasta, including gluten-free products. People who react to peanuts may also react to lupine.


Maize (zea mays)

Zea mays, more commonly referred to as maize, is a member of the grass family Poaceae, or true grasses.

Meadow Foxtail

Stiff, erect weedy grass found in meadows, fields and grasslands. Named for their spikelet clusters of bristled seeds which resemble the bushy tail of a fox.


Any of numerous small long-tailed rodents of the families Muridae and Cricetidae that are similar to but smaller than rats


A leathery-leaved parasitic plant which grows on apple, oak, and other broadleaf trees and bears yellowish flowers and white glutinous berries in winter.It’s traditionally used as a Christmas decoration, and some are formerly used in preparations with oxytocic, antispasmodic, or heart-stimulating properties.


Flying insect that sucks the blood of animals and humans. Some species transmit certain diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever.

Marguerite (leucanthemum vulgaris)

A perennial herb commonly known as the ox-eye daisy, oxeye daisy, dog daisy and other common names, and is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe. The unopened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers. It is widely cultivated and available as a perennial flowering ornamental plant for gardens and designed meadow landscapes.

Meadow Fescue

Short, blunt grass. Often used as an ornamental grass in gardens and to feed horses and cattle.


Cultivated as a grain or vegetable in some countries and considered a weed in others. Pollen contributes to hay fever-like allergies. Used as an animal feed, in wall plaster, for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat bug bites and burns.


A tall herbaceous perennial with a woody root. Occasionally known as riverside wormwood, felon herb, chrysanthemum weed, wild wormwood, old Uncle Henry, sailor’s tobacco, naughty man, old man or St. John’s plant. Traditionally used as one of the flavoring and bittering agents of gruit ales, a type of non-hopped, fermented grain beverage.Medically used for pain relief, treatment of fever and used as a diuretic agent.


Small to medium trees with large, juicy purple-black fruits. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea and to make breads, muffins, pies, jam, wine, etc. Mulberry leaves are the favorite food for silkworm moths.



Spring-flowering bulbs, including daffodils, amaryllis and jonquils. Flowers have trumpet-shaped centers, surrounded by a ring of petals. Used as cut flowers or in ornamental gardens. Used for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat wounds, burns, strains and joint pain.

New Belgian Aster

A herbaceous perennial in the Asteraceae family that may grow 3 to 5 feet high. Its low growing habit and fall bloom works well as an edge plant in the front of borders, or in rock garden or butterfly gardens.


Petroleum-based synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity and strength. Used to make fabrics, stockings, hair combs & brushes, mechanical parts, food packaging, fishing line, instrument strings, powder coating, etc.


Oak (quercus robur)

A species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae. Commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, it is valued for its importance to insects and other wildlife. Numerous insects live on the leaves, buds, and in the acorns. The acorns form a valuable food resource for several small mammals and some birds.


Spring-flowering bulbs, including daffodils, amaryllis and jonquils. Flowers have trumpet-shaped centers, surrounded by a ring of petals. Used as cut flowers or in ornamental gardens. Used for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat wounds, burns, strains and joint pain.

Orchard Grass

Tall growing grass used for hay, pasture and food for horses and cattle.


Parrot Feathers

Feathers from the bird, parrot or macaw, can cause allergies from direct or indirect contact. Bird allergens may be major components of house dust.

Perennial Ryegrass

Cool-season grass known for its shine. Used for lawns, landscaping, pastures, hay, etc.

Pine (pinus spp.)

Any of several yellowish or reddish parasitic or saprophytic herbs (genus Monotropa) of the wintergreen family resembling the Indian pipe. Can be used as a sealant, glue, and varnish. It is distilled into rosin, which is used to promote a better grip between objects, and oil of turpentine, which is used as a solvent and as a paint thinner

Plantain Plant

Common weed with green oval to egg-shaped leaves that grow in a rosette. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea. Leaves used on insect bites, stings, rashes, burns, cuts, etc. Sometimes confused with Ribwort Plantain.

Poplar (populus spp.)

Deciduous flowering plants native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. It is used for paper, timber, as an energy crop for biomass, in energy forestry systems, and also used as biofuel.


Also known as Ligustrum. Shrub of the olive family with heavily scented white flowers and poisonous black berries. Used for ornamental hedges, in horticulture and flower arrangements. Also used for medicinal purposes, skin products and herbal tea.

Prosopis spp

Mesquites (Prosopis spp.) and thorny shrubs/trees that grow to about 3 metres but can reach 15 metres. P. pallida has a main single stem and spreading canopy, P. velutina is a compact shrub while the hybrids generally grow as smaller multi-stemmed trees with branches drooping to the ground.

Pear Tree

An Old World tree having sweet gritty-textured juicy fruit; widely cultivated in many varieties. Pears are consumed fresh, canned, as juice, and dried and the juice can also be used in jellies and jams. Pear wood is one of the preferred materials in the manufacture of high-quality woodwind instruments and furniture, and was used for making the carved blocks for woodcuts. It is also used for wood carving, and as a firewood to produce aromatic smoke for smoking meat or tobacco.


A stout seed- or fruit-eating bird with a small head, short legs, and a cooing voice, typically having gray and white plumage.

Pine (scottish - pinus sylvestris)

A coniferous tree, of Europe and Asia, having blue-green needle-like leaves and brown cones with a small prickle on each scale; a valuable timber tree. One of the strongest softwoods available, and is widely used in the construction industry and in joinery. It is used in the manufacture of telegraph poles, pit props, gate posts and fencing. The tree can also be tapped for resin to make turpentine.

Plane tree (plantanus acerifolia)

Any tree of the genus Platanus, the buttonwood or sycamore of North America, having palmately lobed leaves and bark that sheds.


Also known as Amaranth. Common weed distinguished by its red stems, especially near the roots. Flowers are small, green bristly spikes. Edible by humans, but toxic to livestock. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, and yellow and green dyes.


Also known as Evening Primrose. Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Edible. The oil (EPO) extracted from the seeds is used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, cosmetics, skin and hair products, etc.


Quack Grass (couch grass-agropyron repens)

A European grass that is naturalized throughout North America and spreads by creeping rhizomes. Also called couch grass, quitch, twitch and witchgrass. The leaves and roots are used to make medicine.



A burrowing, gregarious, plant-eating mammal with long ears, long hind legs, and a short tail. Related to the hare.


A common, soft-stemmed flowering plant that’s considered a weed. Produces an enormous amount of pollen that’s spread through the air. Known to cause seasonal allergies/hay fever.

Red Fescue

Cool season grass used in cool, shaded mountain sites, such as camps, resorts, cabins, etc. Used in landscaping for tough spots.


Flowering plant with large, colorful, fragrant blooms and sharp thorns. Rose hips (fruit of the plant) and rose water for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, skin products, jelly, soup, syrup, nutritional supplements, etc. Rose petals used in herbal tea. Rose oil used for perfumes.

Rape (Rapeseed)

Flowering plant with bright-yellow blooms. Third largest source of vegetable oil in the world. Used as a cooking oil, livestock feed, pharmaceutical, biofuel, industrial lubricant, lamp fuel, in soap and margarine.


A rodent that resembles a large mouse, typically having a pointed snout and a long, sparsely haired tail. Sometimes responsible for transmitting diseases.

Ribwort Plantain

Flowering plant that hides in lawns and is considered a weed. Ribwort is distinguished from Plantain by its rosette of long, narrow leaves and prominent, parallel veins. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, wet dressing for wounds and swelling, remedy for rattlesnake bites, eye lotion, etc.


A tough elastic polymeric substance made from the latex of a tropical plant or synthetically. Used in hose, tires, and rollers ranging from domestic clothes wringers to printing presses; its elasticity makes it suitable for various kinds of shock absorbers and for specialized machinery mountings.


Major cereal grain. Closely related to barley and wheat. Used for flour, bread, beer, whiskeys, vodkas and animal food.


Scotch Heather

Also known as Spring Torch. Small evergreen shrub with mauve-pink flower spikes. Ground cover or rock garden plant.


Is a species ofspruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. It is the species used as the main Christmas tree in several cities around the world.

Stinging Nettle

Wild plant with hollow stinging nettles and tiny, fuzzy-like white flowers. Nettles produce a stinging sensation upon contact. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, cordial, beer and fabrics. Used in the past to deliberately sting the skin to provoke inflammation as a folk remedy for rheumatism.

Sheep's Wool

Is the fiber that grows on the body of most sheep. Wool is widely used in clothing from knitwear such as socks and jumpers to cloth used for suits and costumes. It is used in the furniture trade both for making chair covers and for upholstery. Many of the better carpets produced traditionally and today are made from wool.


Ancient grain widely recognized for being hardier and more nutritious than modern wheat. Currently a specialty crop used for making bread, pasta, beer and vodka.


Tansy Ragwort

Flowering plant with clusters of yellow flowers. Classed as a prohibited noxious weed because if eaten, it can be deadly to humans and livestock. The pollen is also toxic. Used for medicinal purposes

Timothy Grass

Also known as Common Cat’s Tail. A grass with stiff stems and cylindrical flower spikes that resemble a cat’s tail. Timothy hay used to feed horses and domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.

Trespe (bromus mollis)

Is an annual or biennial species of grass in the true grass family. It is also known in North America as bull grass, soft cheat, and soft chess. It is the most common species of Bromus in Britain, where it can be found on roadsides, waste ground, meadows, and cultivated land.


Flowering plant with large, showy, brightly colored (red, pink, yellow or white) blooms. The Netherlands are the world’s main producer of tulip plants. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, skin products, perfumes, poultice for insect bites and stings, burns and rashes.

Tamarisk (myrica sp.)

Is an invasive shrub or small tree that is found across the American West. Tamarisk favors sites that are inhospitable to native streamside plants because of high salinity, low water availability, and altered streamflow regimes created by dams.


Also known as Milk Thistle. Flowering plant related to daisies and ragweed. The plants have sharp prickles all over. Valued by bumblebees for their high nectar production. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, herbal tea, etc.


Plant that contains nicotine, a psychoactive (mind altering) drug that speeds up activity in the central nervous system but has relaxing effects too. Found in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco and snuff.


Velvet Grass

Also known as Yorkshire fog. Tall grass that has a velvety feel when touched. Grows as a weed in damp places such as stream banks and drainage areas. It is considered an invasive species.



Flowering plants with fragrant yellow to orange flowers borne on long spikes. Named for their habit of growing from chinks in walls. Found on prairies, sand hills and open woods. Used for medicinal purposes, aromatherapy and fragrance.

Walnut ( juglans regia)

The large wrinkled edible seed of a deciduous tree, consisting of two halves contained within a hard shell which is enclosed in a green fruit. the tall tree that produces the walnut, with compound leaves and valuable ornamental timber that is used chiefly in cabinetmaking and gunstocks.

Water Reed

Tall, glass-like plants of wetlands. Used by many cultures as thatching material for roofs and in construction of buildings.

Willow (salix vitellina)

A tree or shrub of temperate climates that typically has narrow leaves, bears catkins, and grows near water. Its pliant branches yield osiers for basketry, and its wood has various uses.


Textile fiber obtained from sheep including cashmere, the making of clothes, coats, blankets, rugs, carpet, cloth diaper covers, hats, etc.


Also known as yellowjackets and hornets. Flying insects that sting. The vast majority play no role in pollination because they don’t have fur-like covering and special body part for pollen storage. They play a vital role in protecting gardens and crops by controlling pests.


The wheat plant has long slender leaves and stems that are hollow in most varieties. The inflorescences are composed of varying numbers of minute flowers, ranging from 20 to 100. The flowers are borne in groups of two to six in structures known as spikelets, which later serve to house the subsequent two or three grains produced by the flowers.

Wild Oat (avena fatua)

An Old World grass that is related to the cultivated oat and is commonly found as a weed of other cereal plants.

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

Flowering plant with small yellow blooms used as an ornamental plant. Grows naturally on rocky slopes, fences and roadsides. Used for medicinal purposes, in spirits and wines, flavoring, bitters, vermouth, etc.