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Environmental Items are listed below Food Items. For definitions please see the 550+ Food Deluxe Items list.

Food Items


  • A-Lactalbumin
  • Ale
  • Acetic acid
  • Almond
  • Aniseed
  • Apples (cooked)
  • Apple Juice
  • Apricots (Raw)
  • Artichoke
  • Asparagus
  • Aubergine


  • Cabbage (green)
  • Caraway
  • Cardamom
  • Carrot
  • Cashew Nut
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery (raw)
  • Chamomile Tea
  • Champagne
  • Cheddar
  • Cherries (raw)
  • Chestnut
  • Chicken
  • Cinnamon
  • Clams
  • Clove
  • Coconut
  • Coconut Oil
  • Cod
  • Coffee (black)
  • Coffee Substitute made from barley
  • Cola
  • Confectionery (general)
  • Cornflakes
  • Cranberry Juice
  • Crayfish
  • Cream
  • Cream Cheese
  • Cumin
  • Currants (red & black)


  • Earl Grey Tea
  • Eel
  • Egg White
  • Egg Yolk


  • Garlic
  • Gin
  • Ginger Goose
  • Gluten
  • Gooseberries
  • Grapefruit (yellow)
  • Grapes (red)
  • Grapes (white)


  • Jasmine Tea


  • Lager
  • Lamb
  • Leek
  • Lemonade
  • Lemons
  • Lentils
  • Lamb’s Liver
  • Lobster


  • Noodles
  • Nutmeg


  • Papaya
  • Paprika
  • Parsley
  • Peaches (raw)
  • Peanuts
  • Pears
  • Peas
  • Pecan Nuts
  • Pepper (black)
  • Pepper (green)
  • Pepper (red)
  • Pepper (white)
  • Pig Liver
  • Pine Nut
  • Pineapple Juice
  • Pomegranates
  • Pomegranate Juice
  • Poppy Seed
  • Pork
  • Potatoes
  • Prosecco
  • Pumpkin Seed


  • Sage
  • Salmon
  • Salt (table)
  • Salt (pink himilayan)
  • Salt (sea)
  • Sambuca
  • Sardine
  • Sesame Seed
  • Shellfish
  • Shrimp
  • Sole
  • Soy Sauce
  • Soya
  • Spelt
  • Spinach
  • Strawberries (raw)
  • Sugar (brown)
  • Sugar (white)
  • Sunflower Oil
  • Swede


  • Veal
  • Venison
  • Vinegar (clear)
  • Vinegar (malt)
  • Vodka


  • Yeast
  • Yerba Mate Tea


  • Bacon
  • Banana
  • Barley
  • Basil
  • Bay Leaf
  • Beans (broad)
  • Beans (green)
  • Beef
  • Beer
  • Beets
  • Blueberries
  • Brazil Nut
  • Bread-Rye
  • Bread
  • Bread (white)
  • Buckwheat
  • Butter
  • Butter (salted)
  • Butter lettuce
  • Buttermilk


  • Dates
  • Dill
  • Dry Roasted Peanuts
  • Duck


  • Fig
  • Flaxseed


  • Hazelnuts
  • Herring
  • Honey
  • Honeydew Melon
  • Horse
  • Horse radish


  • Kiwis


  • Macadamia Nuts
  • Mackerel
  • Maize
  • Maize Flour
  • Maple Syrup
  • Marshmallow Tea
  • Milk (cow)
  • Milk (goat)
  • Millet
  • Mint (fresh)
  • Molasses
  • Mushrooms
  • Mussels (general)
  • Mustard


  • Oats
  • Onion
  • Oolong Team
  • Orange Juice
  • Oranges
  • Ovaltine
  • Oyster
  • Ox Liver


  • Rabbit
  • Raisins (raw)
  • Raspberries (raw)
  • Red Leicester
  • Red Wine
  • Rice, white
  • Rooibos Tea
  • Rosemary
  • Rum
  • Rye


  • Tea (black)
  • Tea (green)
  • Tequila
  • Thyme
  • Tomato
  • Trout
  • Turkey
  • Turmeric
  • Turnip


  • Walnuts
  • Watermelon
  • Wheat (ground)
  • Wheat (whole grain)
  • Whiskey
  • White tea
  • White Wine
  • Whitefish

Environmental Items



Also known as Aster Root. Flowering plant with purple or pink blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, herbal tea, etc. Vapor inhaled as steam.


Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Major cereal grain. Ranked 4th in quantity produced, behind maize (corn), rice and wheat. Used for medicinal purposes and as a nutritional supplement.

Bermuda Grass

Grass most often recognized by its runners. Used for sports fields, golf courses, lawns, parks, etc.


Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Toxic to humans and cattle when fresh but safe when dried. Dried plants are used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea.


Flying insects that sting. Known for their role in pollination. Includes bumble bees, honeybees, etc. Bee products such as raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, beeswax and apitoxin (bee venom) are used for medicinal purposes, skin, hair, bath, and personal care products, health supplements, etc.

Buckwheat (Kootu)

Considered a grain, but actually a fruit seed.  Recognized by its broad leaf.. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, skin and hair products. Being gluten-free, it’s an excellent food substitute for wheat, rye, barley and oats.



Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.


(Mum) Flowering plant with colorful blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc. Also used as an insecticide and for pest control.

Colonial Bentgrass

Very fine-bladed, a cool-season grass. Mainly found on high maintenance golf course greens, tees, fairways, croquet courts, tennis courts, and lawn bowling greens.


Flowering plant with daisy-like blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin and bath products, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc. Used on wounds and for pain and swelling.


Small, low growing plant, found in lawns. Usually has three leaves (considered lucky to find four) and small white or red flowers. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.


Soft, fluffy fiber that grows in a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant. Used to make fabrics, thread, etc.



A flowering plant with colorful spiky blooms. Many different colors. Used in landscaping and floristry. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, herbal tea, etc.

Dead Nettle (Purple Deadnettle)

Common weed with small pink or white tubular blooms and purple or red upper leaves. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes. Leaves used on wounds or cuts.


Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.


Fine particles of soil, plant pollen, human and animal hair, textile fibers, paper fibers, etc. in the atmosphere or that accumulate on surfaces.


Common weed with numerous seeds attached to white, fluffy “parachutes” that disperse in the wind. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.

Dock Plant (Curly dock, Yellow dock)

Common weed with fleshy to leathery leaves. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, coffee substitute, etc. Also used for dye and leather tanning. Broad-leaf dock leaves used on burns, blisters and nettle stings.

Duck Feathers

Tough exterior feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer. Used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.


E 212 Potassium Benzoate, benzoic acid

Synthetic preservative. Antibacterial and antifungal. Used in margarine, pickles (vinegar), fruit juice (citric acid), soft drinks (phosphorus acid), sparkling drinks (carbonic acid). Used in the whistle in many fireworks.

E 230 Biphenyl, Diphenyl

Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay of citrus fruit during transportation and storage.

E 232 Sodium orthophenylphenate, Orthophenylphenol (SOPP)

Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay in apples and pears and other fruits during transportation and storage.

E 284 Boric acid

Natural acid. Used to control insects, spiders, mites, algae, molds, fungi and weeds. Also used in soil amendments, fertilizers, cleaners, detergents and personal care products.

E 290 Carbon dioxide, carbonic acid

Natural waste gas excreted by your lungs as you breathe out. High levels are often caused by hypoventilation or a breathing disorder. Carbonic acid is formed from dissolving carbon dioxide in water. Used in carbonated beverages.

E413 Tragacanth

Sap-like material (resin) from the plant. Natural thickening agent. Used in medicines, toothpastes, lotions, denture adhesives, vaginal products, etc.

E 504 Magnesium carbonate, M.-hydrogen carbonate – (Chalk)

Used as a drying agent on athletes’ palms. Added to salt to prevent sticking  Used for flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing, smoke suppressant, fillers, reinforcing and drying agents. Also used  in, laxatives, cosmetics, dusting powder, toothpaste, mineral supplements for color retention in foods.

E 528 Magnesium hydroxide

Used in antacids and laxatives. Best known as milk of magnesia. Also used in dishwashing liquid.

E 551 Silicon dioxide (silica)

Found in nature as quartz. A major component of sand. Used in concrete, the production of glass, an electrical insulator in microelectronics, etc. Silica is an occupational hazard for people who do sandblast or work with stone countertops or other products that contain crystalline silica.  Also used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, toothpaste, etc. An anti-caking agent in powdered foods, such as spices and non-dairy coffee creamer.

E 553b Talc

Used as an anti-caking and filling agent in dry products and cosmetics. Also used as a coating. Products that contain talc: bath powders, antiperspirants/deodorants, diaper rash products, cosmetics, soaps, paints/finishes pesticides, flea & tick products.

E 559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin)

Used in cosmetics (clay masks), in medicines, and as a food additive. Also used to treat diaper rash, poison oak/ivy etc. Used in pottery.

E 576 Sodium gluconate (D-gluconic acid)

Used as a preservative and stabilizer in cosmetics, skin and hair products, toothpaste, etc.

E 914 Polyethylene wax oxidates (Oxidized polyethylene wax)

Coating, glazing agent. Used in plastics, rubber, leather, paper, inks, textile, etc.

E 941 Nitrogen

Colorless, odorless, gas or liquid. Used in packaging food to protect from oxidation and spoilage. Also used as a propellant.

E 948 Oxygen

Colorless, odorless gas acquired by the body through breathing. Tanks of oxygen are used for life support for patients, astronauts and scuba divers. Also used in hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Breathing air with a much higher than normal oxygen level can overwhelm the blood’s ability to carry it away and cause oxygen toxicity.

E 1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP) (Polyvidone or povidone)

Used as a thickening and filling agent, stabilizer and lubricant. Found in drugs (syrups, soft gelatin capsules), ointments, hair care products, toothpaste, liquid soap, eye solutions, cosmetics, fragrances, etc. Used as clarifying agent for wine, beer and vinegar.

Elder Plant

Also known as Elderberry. Small shrubs and trees with tiny flowers and berries. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplement, herbal tea, etc. Cooked berries used to make juice, jams, chutneys, pies, syrup and wine.

E 216 Propyl-parahydroxybenzoate (PHB Ester & Propylparaben)

Synthetic preservative. Used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

E 231 Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP)

Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay of citrus and other fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage.

E 235 Natamycine

Also known as Pimaracin. Used as an antifungal medication, in skin products, eye drops, throat lozenges, etc. Used as a surface preservative for certain cheeses and dried sausage products.

E 285 Sodium tetraborate (Borax)

Natural acid. Used for cleaning purposes and as an ant killer. In many detergents, cosmetics and enamel glazes.

E 385 Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)

Chemical salt. Used in pharmaceutical products, shampoos, cleaners, cosmetics, agricultural sprays and dentistry. Used as a preservative and to improve color, texture and flavor in soft drinks, salad dressings, pickled vegetables, canned foods, etc. Used as a chelating agent to treat metal toxicity.

E 491 Sorbitan monostearate (Spans)

Synthetic Wax. Used as a protective covering on fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage. Used to create synthetic fibers, metal machining fluid, brighteners in the leather industry, coatings, pesticides, plastics, and cosmetics. Foods found in candy, icecream, cakes, cookies, pudding, beverages, etc.

E 516 Calcium sulphate

Naturally occurring salt. Used to produce plaster of Paris (dental impressions, casts), stucco (construction) & gypsum (construction & soil additive). Used in silica gel dry packs. Used in food as a thickening agent (dairy and grain products, etc.).

E 536 Potassium ferrocyanide

Reacts with iron to produce a blue pigment, used for blueprint paper. An ingredient in coatings for steel files, saws, tools, welding rods, etc. Used in electroplating, silver plating, dyeing textiles, manufacture of mirrors, medicine, detergents, pesticides, photographic processes, etc.

E 553 a Magnesium silicate, Magnesium trisilicate

Used in antacids and as an anti-caking and filling agent in dry products and cosmetics.

E 554 Aluminium sodium silicate

Anticaking agent used in latex paint and laundry detergent. In foods such as dairy-based drinks, milk powders, sauces, gravy & soup mixes, salt and seasonings.

E 575 Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) (Gluconolactone)

Made from corn or rice using bacterial fermentation. Used as substitute enzymes in cheese and tofu and as leavening agent in bakery products. Also used as a preservative and curing/pickling agent.

E 900 Dimethyl-polysiloxane (Polydimethylsiloxane/PDMS, Dimethicone)

In cosmetics, skin and hair products, head lice treatments, personal lubricants, cooking oils, pharmaceuticals, etc. Also used in water-repelling coatings, such as Rain-X. Used for contact lenses, medical devices, breast implant filler fluid. In polishes, hydraulic fluids, antifoaming agents, surfactants, Silly Putty, Kinetic Sand, etc.

E 939 Helium

Colorless, odorless gas. Best known for use in balloons. Largest use in cryogenic applications (cooling superconducting magnets in MRI scanners and NMR spectrometers). Also used for pressurizing and purging systems, welding, maintenance of controlled atmospheres, leak detection, airships and rockets.

E 942 Dinitrogen monoxide (Nitrous oxide or Laughing Gas)

When inhaled, can make a person feel euphoric, lightheaded, etc.  Can also cause dizziness, dissociation and temporary loss of motor control.  Most common use is as an anesthetic in short surgeries. Prolonged inhalation causes death. Also used as a propellant in food aerosols.

E 999 Quillaja extract

From Quillaja saponaria, the soap bark tree. Used for medicinal purposes, especially as a treatment for breathing problems. In personal care products and fire-fighting foam. In South America, quillaia bark is used to wash clothes.

E 1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) (Crospovidone or crospolividone)

Used as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets. Used as a clarifying agent for wine, beer, and vinegar. Artificial


Fireweed / Great Willow Herb

Tall showy wildflower.  Named for its ability to grow abundantly on newly burned areas. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes and skin products.


Goose Feathers

Includes outer feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer of feathers which is used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.



Also known as Thornapple. Thorny shrubs or small trees are grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and fruits. Used for medicinal purposes, as an herbal supplement, and in skin products. Also in candied fruit, jam, jelly, and wine.

House Dust Mite

Microscopic animals that feed on decaying matter.

Hop (Humulus Lupulus)

Vining plant in the hemp family with fragrant flower cones, known as hops. The hops are used by breweries to preserve and flavor beer.

Hyacinth (Endymion non-scriptus)

Also known as bluebell. A flowering plant that produces tubular violet-blue blooms. Associated with ancient UK woodland where it produced carpets of “bluebell woods.” Used in medicines.



Flowering plant with pink, white or yellow blossoms. Used extensively for medicinal purposes, in skin, bath and cleaning products, fragrances, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc.

Juniper Bush

Hardy, versatile evergreen shrub used for landscaping.



Tall, slender grass, grazed by sheep and cattle. Used for straw plaiting hats and other similar uses. Also used as a rat killer.

Kentucky Bluegrass

Drought and heat-resistant lawn grass with broad, blunt leaves and blue flower heads (when allowed to grow 2-3 feet).



Product made from rubber tree. Used to make gloves, balloons and condoms. Exposure could come from touching latex or breathing in latex particles.


Flowering shrub or small tree with blooms ranging in color from lilac to mauve or occasionally white. Known for their fragrant scent. Used extensively for medicinal purposes, in skin, bath and cleaning products, fragrances, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc.


Also known as Spandex and Elastane. A synthetic fiber made from polyester. Known for its exceptional elasticity and strength. Mixed with cotton to make tights, bras, underwear, sports clothing, swimsuits, wetsuits, etc.


Material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide. Used to make footwear, automobile seats, clothing, furniture, etc.


Flowering plant in the legume family with tall, colorful tapering spikes of blooms.  Lupin beans are a traditional food in Mediterranean cuisine. Lupine flour or protein is used in baked goods, pasta, including gluten-free products. People who react to peanuts may also react to lupine.


Maize (Corn)

Most widely grown grain. Genetically modified maize makes up the majority of maize in the U.S. Used to feed animals and make corn ethanol, gypsum drywall, adhesives, glue, etc. Look for “zea mays,” the scientific name for corn, in products for skin, hair and bath, cosmetics, hair dyes, powders, etc. “Icein,” a corn-based processing aid, is used to make vegetables appear fresher. “Zein,” protein in corn, is used in wax paper, wax-coated cardboard products and bio-engineered bone and gum tissue. Splenda and Equal are made with “maltodextrin,” a corn product. “Sorbitol,” a corn glucose derivative, is in toothpaste. Corn is also an ingredient in coated aspirin, tires, molded plastics, spark plugs and diapers. Found in foods in corn starch, corn syrup, corn flour, etc.

Meadow Foxtail

Stiff, erect weedy grass found in meadows, fields and grasslands. Named for their spikelet clusters of bristled seeds which resemble the bushy tail of a fox.

Mold-l- Allergen

Fungus that grows on organic matter. Common component of household and workplace dust. Usually found in damp and dark areas. When present in large quantities, can be hazardous to health. Pharmaceuticals produced from molds include penicillin, several statin cholesterol-lowering drugs and the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporine.


Flying insect that sucks the blood of animals and humans. Some species transmit certain diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever.

Meadow Fescue

Short, blunt grass. Often used as an ornamental grass in gardens and to feed horses and cattle.


Cultivated as a grain or vegetable in some countries and considered a weed in others. Pollen contributes to hay fever-like allergies. Used as an animal feed, in wall plaster, for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat bug bites and burns.

Mold-ll Allergen

The purpose of mold in the environment is to break down dead and decaying materials, which is why it appears on food. Mold growing on food will likely be green, fuzzy and will be on the surface and growing deep with the food. Common on foods such as bread and oranges. Molds are used in the making of some cheeses (blue, gorgonzola, Roquefort, brie, etc), soybean paste, soy sauce, sake, etc. Red rice yeast is a product of mold grown on rice and is common in Asian diets. It is also used as a dietary supplement.


Small to medium trees with large, juicy purple-black fruits. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea and to make breads, muffins, pies, jam, wine, etc. Mulberry leaves are the favorite food for silkworm moths.



Spring-flowering bulbs, including daffodils, amaryllis and jonquils. Flowers have trumpet-shaped centers, surrounded by a ring of petals. Used as cut flowers or in ornamental gardens. Used for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat wounds, burns, strains and joint pain.


Petroleum-based synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity and strength. Used to make fabrics, stockings, hair combs & brushes, mechanical parts, food packaging, fishing line, instrument strings, powder coating, etc.



Spring-flowering bulbs, including daffodils, amaryllis and jonquils. Flowers have trumpet-shaped centers, surrounded by a ring of petals. Used as cut flowers or in ornamental gardens. Used for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat wounds, burns, strains and joint pain.

Orchard Grass

Tall growing grass used for hay, pasture and food for horses and cattle.


Perennial Ryegrass

Cool-season grass known for its shine. Used for lawns, landscaping, pastures, hay, etc.

Plantain Plant

Common weed with green oval to egg-shaped leaves that grow in a rosette.  Edible. Used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea. Leaves used on insect bites, stings, rashes, burns, cuts, etc. Sometimes confused with Ribwort Plantain.


Also known as Ligustrum. Shrub of the olive family with heavily scented white flowers and poisonous black berries. Used for ornamental hedges, in horticulture and flower arrangements. Also used for medicinal purposes, skin products and herbal tea.


Also known as Amaranth. Common weed distinguished by its red stems, especially near the roots. Flowers are small, green bristly spikes. Edible by humans, but toxic to livestock. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, and yellow and green dyes.


Also known as Evening Primrose. Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Edible. The oil (EPO) extracted from the seeds is used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, cosmetics, skin and hair products, etc.



A common, soft-stemmed flowering plant that’s considered a weed. Produces an enormous amount of pollen that’s spread through the air. Known to cause seasonal allergies/hay fever.

Red Fescue

Cool season grass used in cool, shaded mountain sites, such as camps, resorts, cabins, etc. Used in landscaping for tough spots.


Flowering plant with large, colorful, fragrant blooms and sharp thorns.  Rose hips (fruit of the plant) and rose water for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, skin products, jelly, soup, syrup, nutritional supplements, etc. Rose petals used in herbal tea. Rose oil used for perfumes.

Rape (Rapeseed)

Flowering plant with bright-yellow blooms. Third largest source of vegetable oil in the world. Used as a cooking oil, livestock feed, pharmaceutical, biofuel, industrial lubricant, lamp fuel, in soap and margarine.

Ribwort Plantain

Flowering plant that hides in lawns and is considered a weed. Ribwort is distinguished from Plantain by its rosette of long, narrow leaves and prominent, parallel veins. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, wet dressing for wounds and swelling, remedy for rattlesnake bites, eye lotion, etc.


Major cereal grain. Closely related to barley and wheat. Used for flour, bread, beer, whiskeys, vodkas and animal food.


Scotch Heather

Also known as Spring Torch. Small evergreen shrub with mauve-pink flower spikes. Ground cover or rock garden plant.

Stinging Nettle

Wild plant with hollow stinging nettles and tiny, fuzzy-like white flowers.  Nettles produce a stinging sensation upon contact. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, cordial, beer and fabrics. Used in the past to deliberately sting the skin to provoke inflammation as a folk remedy for rheumatism.


Ancient grain widely recognized for being hardier and more nutritious than modern wheat. Currently a specialty crop used for making bread, pasta, beer and vodka.

Sweet Vernal Gras

Fragrant grass used for lawns and house plants. Also found in pastures and meadows. Used for dried flower arrangements and potpourri. Used for medicinal purposes, in brandies and as a flavoring agent in foods.


Tansy Ragwort

Flowering plant with clusters of yellow flowers. Classed as a prohibited noxious weed because if eaten, it can be deadly to humans and livestock. The pollen is also toxic. Used for medicinal purposes

Timothy Grass

Also known as Common Cat’s Tail. A grass with stiff stems and cylindrical flower spikes that resemble a cat’s tail. Timothy hay used to feed horses and domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.


Flowering plant with large, showy, brightly colored (red, pink, yellow or white) blooms. The Netherlands are the world’s main producer of tulip plants. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, skin products, perfumes, poultice for insect bites and stings, burns and rashes.


Also known as Milk Thistle. Flowering plant related to daisies and ragweed. The plants have sharp prickles all over. Valued by bumblebees for their high nectar production. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, herbal tea, etc.


Plant that contains nicotine, a psychoactive (mind altering) drug that speeds up activity in the central nervous system but has relaxing effects too. Found in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco and snuff.



Woven fabric with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive smooth, soft feel. Most commonly made of a mix of rayon and silk. The most expensive type is made entirely of silk.

Velvet Grass

Also known as Yorkshire fog. Tall grass that has a velvety feel when touched. Grows as a weed in damp places such as stream banks and drainage areas. It is considered an invasive species.



Flowering plants with fragrant yellow to orange flowers borne on long spikes. Named for their habit of growing from chinks in walls. Found on prairies, sand hills and open woods. Used for medicinal purposes, aromatherapy and fragrance.

Water Reed

Tall, glass-like plants of wetlands. Used by many cultures as thatching material for roofs and in construction of buildings.


Textile fiber obtained from sheep including cashmere, the making of clothes, coats, blankets, rugs, carpet, cloth diaper covers, hats, etc.


Also known as yellowjackets and hornets. Flying insects that sting. The vast majority play no role in pollination because they don’t have fur-like covering and special body part for pollen storage. They play a vital role in protecting gardens and crops by controlling pests.


Major cereal grain grown globally. Ranked 3rd among grains in quantity produced, behind maize (corn) and rice. Wheat is used in flour, bread, cereals, pasta, etc. Can also be found in flavoring, caramel color, dextrin, food starch, MSG, sauces, vegetable gum, etc.

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

Flowering plant with small yellow blooms used as an ornamental plant. Grows naturally on rocky slopes, fences and roadsides. Used for medicinal purposes, in spirits and wines, flavoring, bitters, vermouth, etc.