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Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa.

Ash (frqxinus excelsior)

Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.

Apple Tree

Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today

Aspen (populus tremula)

Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen


Also known as Aster Root. Flowering plant with purple or pink blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, herbal tea, etc. Vapor inhaled as steam.


Babies breath

is a genus of flowering plants in the carnation family, Caryophyllaceae. The baby’s-breath most commonly used in flower arrangements

Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Major cereal grain. Ranked 4th in quantity produced, behind maize (corn), rice and wheat. Used for medicinal purposes and as a nutritional supplement.

Bermuda Grass

Grass most often recognized by its runners. Used for sports fields, golf courses, lawns, parks, etc.

Blue Spruce

with the Latin name Picea pungens, is a species of spruce tree. It is native to Canada and the United States

Box Elder

an American maple of damp soils that has leaves resembling the ash and green or purplish twigs.


Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Toxic to humans and cattle when fresh but safe when dried. Dried plants are used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea.


Flying insects that sting. Known for their role in pollination. Includes bumble bees, honeybees, etc. Bee products such as raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, beeswax and apitoxin (bee venom) are used for medicinal purposes, skin, hair, bath, and personal care products, health supplements, etc.

Beech (fagus silvatica)

Fagus sylvatica, the European beech or common beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae


A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams


an animal of the cattle group, which also includes buffaloes and bisons.

Bradford Pear Tree

or the Callery pear, is a species of pear tree native to China and Vietnam, in the family Rosaceae. It is most commonly known for its cultivar ‘Bradford’, widely planted throughout the United States and increasingly regarded as an invasive

Buckwheat (Kootu)

Considered a grain, but actually a fruit seed.  Recognized by its broad leaf.. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, skin and hair products. Being gluten-free, it’s an excellent food substitute for wheat, rye, barley and oats.



A flowering plant with colorful spiky blooms. Many different colors. Used in landscaping and floristry. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, herbal tea, etc.

Dead Nettle (Purple Deadnettle)

Common weed with small pink or white tubular blooms and purple or red upper leaves. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes. Leaves used on wounds or cuts.

Deer Epithelium

Allergen attained from direct or indirect contact with the fur/skin of the deer

Douglas Fir Tree

is an evergreen conifer species in the pine family, Pinaceae. It is used in the form of lumber, timbers, pilings and plywood. Douglas-fir is also used to produce a wide variety of products including general millwork, flooring, furniture, cabinets and veneer.


Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.


Common weed with numerous seeds attached to white, fluffy “parachutes” that disperse in the wind. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.

Dock Plant (Curly dock, Yellow dock)

Common weed with fleshy to leathery leaves. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, coffee substitute, etc. Also used for dye and leather tanning. Broad-leaf dock leaves used on burns, blisters and nettle stings.

Dogwood (cornus nuttalli)

is a species of dogwood native to western North America from the lowlands of southern British Columbia to the mountains of southern California, with an inland population in central Idaho. The bark of Cornus species is rich in tannins and has been used in traditional medicine as a substitute for quinine.

Downey Birch (betula Verrico)

is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia. It can be used to make refreshing drinks, wines, ales and liqueurs and various parts of the tree have been used in herbal medicine

Duck Feathers

Tough exterior feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer. Used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.



a type of bird


Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.

Cherry Tree

the tree that bears the cherry


(Mum) Flowering plant with colorful blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc. Also used as an insecticide and for pest control.

Colonial Bent Grass

Very fine-bladed, a cool-season grass. Mainly found on high maintenance golf course greens, tees, fairways, croquet courts, tennis courts, and lawn bowling greens.


the eastern cottonwood or necklace poplar, is a cottonwood poplar native to North America, growing throughout the eastern, central, and southwestern United States, the southernmost part of eastern Canada, and northeastern Mexico. Native to the United States, cottonwood tree’s preferred habitat in the wild include moist bottomland areas and around lakes and streams.

Currant Bush

All forms of currant are deciduous shrubs carrying the currant fruits


Cedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae.


Flowering plant with daisy-like blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin and bath products, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc. Used on wounds and for pain and swelling.

Chicken Droppings

is the feces of chickens used as an organic fertilizer, especially for soil low in nitrogen. Of all animal manures, it has the highest amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium


Small, low growing plant, found in lawns. Usually has three leaves (considered lucky to find four) and small white or red flowers. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.

Chicken Feathers

are feathers that comes from a chicken. The feathers can be heated, mixed with other materials, and molded into plastic. Can also be used in pillows.


Soft, fluffy fiber that grows in a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant. Used to make fabrics, thread, etc.

Cypress Tree

an evergreen coniferous tree with small rounded woody cones and flattened shoots bearing small scale-like leaves. Cypress trees grow well on dry land. Cypress trees (Cupressus spp.) produce durable and lightweight wood that is made into shingles, tables and boxes.


E 212 Potassium Benzoate, benzoic acid

Synthetic preservative. Antibacterial and antifungal. Used in margarine, pickles (vinegar), fruit juice (citric acid), soft drinks (phosphoris acid), sparkling drinks (carbonic acid). Used in the whistle in many fireworks.

E 230 Biphenyl, Diphenyl

Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay of citrus fruit during transportation and storage.

E 232 Sodium orthophenylphenate, Orthophenylphenol (SOPP)

Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay in apples and pears and other fruits during transportation and storage.

E 284 Boric acid

Natural acid. Used to control insects, spiders, mites, algae, molds, fungi and weeds. Also used in soil amendments, fertilizers, cleaners, detergents and personal care products.

E 290 Carbon dioxide, carbonic acid

Natural waste gas excreted by your lungs as you breathe out. High levels are often caused by hypoventilation or a breathing disorder. Carbonic acid is formed from dissolving carbon dioxide in water. Used in carbonated beverages.

E413 Tragacanth

Sap-like material (resin) from the plant. Natural thickening agent. Used in medicines, toothpastes, lotions, denture adhesives, vaginal products, etc.

E 504 Magnesium carbonate, M.-hydrogen carbonate (Chalk)

Used as a drying agent on athletes’ palms. Added to salt to prevent sticking  Used for flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing, smoke suppressant, fillers, reinforcing and drying agents. Also used in, laxatives, cosmetics, dusting powder, toothpaste, mineral supplements for color retention in foods.

E 528 Magnesium hydroxide

Used in antacids and laxatives. Best known as milk of magnesia. Also used in dishwashing liquid.

E 551 Silicon dioxide (silica)

Found in nature as quartz. A major component of sand. Used in concrete, the production of glass, an electrical insulator in microelectronics, etc. Silica is an occupational hazard for people who do sandblast or work with stone countertops or other products that contain crystalline silica.  Also used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, toothpaste, etc. An anti-caking agent in powdered foods, such as spices and non-dairy coffee creamer.

E 553b Talc

Used as an anti-caking and filling agent in dry products and cosmetics. Also used as a coating. Products that contain talc: bath powders, antiperspirants/deodorants, diaper rash products, cosmetics, soaps, paints/finishes pesticides, flea & tick products.

E 575 Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) (Gluconolactone)

Made from corn or rice using bacterial fermentation. Used as substitute enzymes in cheese and tofu and as leavening agent in bakery products. Also used as a preservative and curing/pickling agent.

E 900 Dimethyl-polysiloxane (Polydimethylsiloxane/PDMS, Dimethicone)

In cosmetics, skin and hair products, head lice treatments, personal lubricants, cooking oils, pharmaceuticals, etc. Also used in water-repelling coatings, such as Rain-X. Used for contact lenses, medical devices, breast implant filler fluid. In polishes, hydraulic fluids, antifoaming agents, surfactants, Silly Putty, Kinetic Sand, etc.

E 939 Helium

Colorless, odorless gas. Best known for use in balloons. Largest use in cryogenic applications (cooling superconducting magnets in MRI scanners and NMR spectrometers). Also used for pressurizing and purging systems, welding, maintenance of controlled atmospheres, leak detection, airships and rockets.

E 942 Dinitrogen monoxide (Nitrous oxide or Laughing Gas)

When inhaled, can make a person feel euphoric, lightheaded, etc.  Can also cause dizziness, dissociation and temporary loss of motor control.  Most common use is as an anesthetic in short surgeries. Prolonged inhalation causes death. Also used as a propellant in food aerosols.

E 999 Quillaja extract

From Quillaja saponaria, the soap bark tree. Used for medicinal purposes, especially as a treatment for breathing problems. In personal care products and fire-fighting foam. In South America, quillaia bark is used to wash clothes.

E 1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) (Crospovidone or crospolividone)

Used as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets. Used as, clarifying agent for wine, beer, and vinegar. Artificial sweetener.


has the widest range of the European elm species, from Ireland eastwards to the Urals, and from the Arctic Circle south to the mountains of the Peloponnese in Greece; it is also found in Iran. It is used both internally and externally in the treatment of diarrhea, rheumatism, wounds, piles etc and is also used as a mouthwash in the treatment of ulcers.

European Lime (tilia europea)

are deciduous, broadleaf, perennial hybrid trees that grow widely throughout Europe and the United States.

E 216 Propyl-parahydroxybenzoate (PHB Ester & Propylparaben)

Synthetic preservative. Used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

E 231 Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP)

Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay of citrus and other fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage.

E 235 Natamycine

Also known as Pimaracin. Used as an antifungal medication, in skin products, eye drops, throat lozenges, etc. Used as a surface preservative for certain cheeses and dried sausage products.

E 285 Sodium tetraborate (Borax

Natural acid. Used for cleaning purposes and as an ant killer. In many detergents, cosmetics and enamel glazes.

E 385 Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)

Chemical salt. Used in pharmaceutical products, shampoos, cleaners, cosmetics, agricultural sprays and dentistry. Used as a preservative and to improve color, texture and flavor in soft drinks, salad dressings, pickled vegetables, canned foods, etc. Used as a chelating agent to treat metal toxicity.

E 491 Sorbitan monostearate (Spans)

Synthetic wax. Used as a protective covering on fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage. Used to create synthetic fibers, metal machining fluid, brighteners in the leather industry, coatings, pesticides, plastics and cosmetics. Foods found in: candy, icecream, cakes, cookies, pudding, beverages, etc.

E 516 Calcium sulphate

Naturally occurring salt. Used to produce plaster of Paris (dental impressions, casts), stucco (construction) & gypsum (construction & soil additive). Used in silica gel dry packs. Used in food as a thickening agent (dairy and grain products, etc.).

E 536 Potassium ferrocyanide

Reacts with iron to produce a blue pigment, used for blueprint paper. An ingredient in coatings for steel files, saws, tools, welding rods, etc. Used in electroplating, silver plating, dyeing textiles, manufacture of mirrors, medicine, detergents, pesticides, photographic processes, etc.

E 553 a Magnesium silicate, Magnesium

Used in antacids and as an anti-caking and filling agent in dry products and cosmetics.

E 554 Aluminium sodium silicate

Anticaking agent used in latex paint and laundry detergent. In foods such as dairy-based drinks, milk powders, sauces, gravy & soup mixes, salt and seasonings.

E 576 Sodium gluconate (D-gluconic acid)

Used as a preservative and stabilizer in cosmetics, skin and hair products, toothpaste, etc.

E 914 Polyethylene wax oxidates (Oxidized polyethylene wax)

Coating, glazing agent. Used in plastics, rubber, leather, paper, inks, textile, etc.

E 559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin)

Used in cosmetics (clay masks), in medicines, and as a food additive. Also used to treat diaper rash, poison oak/ivy etc. Used in pottery.

E 941 NitrogenE 941 Nitrogen

Colorless, odorless, gas or liquid. Used in packaging food to protect from oxidation and spoilage. Also used as a propellant.

E 948 Oxygen

Colorless, odorless gas acquired by the body through breathing. Tanks of oxygen are used for life support for patients, astronauts and scuba divers. Also used in hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Breathing air with a much higher than normal oxygen level can overwhelm the blood’s ability to carry it away and cause oxygen toxicity.

E 1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP) (Polyvidone or povidone)

Used as a thickening and filling agent, stabilizer and lubricant. Found in drugs (syrups, soft gelatin capsules), ointments, hair care products, toothpaste, liquid soap, eye solutions, cosmetics, fragrances, etc. Used as a clarifying agent for wine, beer, and vinegar.

Elder Plant

Also known as Elderberry. Small shrubs and trees with tiny flowers and berries. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplement, herbal tea, etc. Cooked berries used to make juice, jams, chutneys, pies, syrup and wine.

European Beech

is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae. is a large, graceful tree appropriate for large landscapes like parks and golf courses.


False acacia (robinia pseudacacia)

Robinia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, native to North America. It is often used in landscaping.

Fireweed / Great Willow Herb

Tall showy wildflower.  Named for its ability to grow abundantly on newly burned areas. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes and skin products.


any of a group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, including molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools.

Ferret Epithelium

Allergen attained from direct or indirect contact with the fur/skin of the ferret

Fox Epithelium

Allergen attained from direct or indirect contact with the fur/skin of the Fox



a hardy domesticated ruminant animal that has backward curving horns and (in the male) a beard. It is kept for its milk and meat and is noted for its lively and frisky behavior.

Guinea Pigs

a tailless South American rodent of the cavy family. Originally raised for food, it no longer occurs in the wild and is now typically kept as a pet or for laboratory research.


is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It is widespread across most of Europe as well as North Africa and northern, central, and southwestern Asia. It is grown as a garden flower with many different cultivars. It flowers profusely in late summer.

Golden Hamster

a solitary burrowing rodent with a short tail and large cheek pouches for carrying food, native to Europe and northern Asia.

Goose Feathers

Includes outer feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer of feathers which is used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.

Gumball Tree

provide lawns with spectacular colors. The tall-growing plant dazzles with its orange, red, yellow and purple autumn foliage.



Also known as Thornapple. Thorny shrubs or small trees grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and fruits. Used for medicinal purposes, as an herbal supplement and in skin products. Also in candied fruit, jam, jelly and wine.


A genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut.The pollen of hazel species are often the cause for allergies in late winter or early spring.

House Dust Mite

Microscopic animals that feed on decaying matter.


A large plant-eating domesticated mammal with solid hoofs and a flowing mane and tail, used for riding, racing, and to carry and pull loads.


Any tree of the betulaceous genus Carpinus, in the birch family, having smooth grey bark and hard, heavy white wood.


Also known as industrial hemp, typically found in the northern hemisphere. When extracted from the stem, it can be used as fiber. It can also be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.


A chiefly North American tree of the walnut family that yields useful timber and typically bears edible nuts.

Hop (Humulus Lupulus)

Vining plant in the hemp family with fragrant flower cones, known as hops. The hops are used by breweries to preserve and flavor beer.

Horse chestnut

A large tree of southeastern Europe that has palmate leaves and erect conical clusters of showy flowers and is widely cultivated as an ornamental and shade tree. It’s flowers grow in large bunches and has large brown seeds.

Hyacinth (Endymion non-scriptus)

Also known as bluebell. A flowering plant that produces tubular violet-blue blooms. Associated with ancient UK woodland where it produced carpets of “bluebell woods.” Used in medicines.


Japanese Millet

A coarse annual grass (Echinochloa frumentacea) cultivated especially in Asia for its edible seeds


Flowering plant with pink, white or yellow blossoms. Used extensively for medicinal purposes, in skin, bath and cleaning products, fragrances, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc.

Juniper Bush

Hardy, versatile evergreen shrub used for landscaping.



Tall, slender grass, grazed by sheep and cattle. Used for straw plaiting hats and other similar uses. Also used as a rat killer.

Kentucky Bluegrass

Drought and heat-resistant lawn grass with broad, blunt leaves and blue flower heads (when allowed to grow 2-3 feet).



Any of a small genus (Laburnum, especially L. anagyroides) of poisonous leguminous shrubs and trees of Eurasia with pendulous racemes of bright yellow flowers. The wood is hard and heavy, of a yellow/brown colour, ideal for making posts, for woodturning and as fuel. In the past (and today on historic re-enactments) it was used for making bows.


Product made from rubber tree. Used to make gloves, balloons and condoms. Exposure could come from touching latex or breathing in latex particles.


Flowering shrub or small tree with blooms ranging in color from lilac to mauve or occasionally white. Known for their fragrant scent. Used extensively for medicinal purposes, in skin, bath and cleaning products, fragrances, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc.


Also known as Spandex and Elastane. A synthetic fiber made from polyester. Known for its exceptional elasticity and strength. Mixed with cotton to make tights, bras, underwear, sports clothing, swimsuits, wetsuits, etc.


Conifers native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larch wood is valued for its tough, waterproof and durable qualities. Top quality knot-free timber is used for building yachts and other small boats, for exterior cladding of buildings, and interior paneling.


Material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide. Used to make footwear, automobile seats, clothing, furniture, etc.


Flowering plant in the legume family with tall, colorful tapering spikes of blooms.  Lupin beans are a traditional food in Mediterranean cuisine. Lupine flour or protein is used in baked goods, pasta, including gluten-free products. People who react to peanuts may also react to lupine.


Maize (Zea mays)

Most widely grown grain. Genetically modified maize makes up the majority of maize in the U.S. Used to feed animals and make corn ethanol, gypsum drywall, adhesives, glue, etc. Look for “zea mays,” the scientific name for corn, in products for skin, hair and bath, cosmetics, hair dyes, powders, etc. “Icein,” a corn-based processing aid, is used to make vegetables appear fresher. “Zein,” protein in corn, is used in wax paper, wax-coated cardboard products and bio-engineered bone and gum tissue. Splenda and Equal are made with “maltodextrin,” a corn product. “Sorbitol,” a corn glucose derivative, is in toothpaste. Corn is also an ingredient in coated aspirin, tires, molded plastics, spark plugs and diapers. Found in foods in corn starch, corn syrup, corn flour, etc.


A perennial herb commonly known as the ox-eye daisy, oxeye daisy, dog daisy and other common names, and is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe. The unopened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers. It is widely cultivated and available as a perennial flowering ornamental plant for gardens and designed meadow landscapes.

Meadow Foxtail

Stiff, erect weedy grass found in meadows, fields and grasslands. Named for their spikelet clusters of bristled seeds which resemble the bushy tail of a fox.


Any of numerous small long-tailed rodents of the families Muridae and Cricetidae that are similar to but smaller than rats


A leathery-leaved parasitic plant which grows on apple, oak, and other broadleaf trees and bears yellowish flowers and white glutinous berries in winter.It’s traditionally used as a Christmas decoration, and some are formerly used in preparations with oxytocic, antispasmodic, or heart-stimulating properties.


Flying insect that sucks the blood of animals and humans. Some species transmit certain diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever.

Mountain Cedar

An evergreen tree with a particularly fragrant wood. Best known for the strong, appealing scent of their wood, which is often used to line storage chests or closets, both for the smell and its tendency to repel moths. Grows naturally and is the most allergenic tree in Central Texas. An allergic reaction causes many symptoms that s include runny nose, itchy and watery eyes, nasal blockage and sneezing.


A tall herbaceous perennial with a woody root. Occasionally known as riverside wormwood, felon herb, chrysanthemum weed, wild wormwood, old Uncle Henry, sailor’s tobacco, naughty man, old man or St. John’s plant. Traditionally used as one of the flavoring and bittering agents of gruit ales, a type of non-hopped, fermented grain beverage.Medically used for pain relief, treatment of fever and used as a diuretic agent.


Trees and shrubs which are native to Asia, also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America. Maples are important as a source of syrup and wood. Dried wood is often used for the smoking of food. Charcoal from maples is used to make Tennessee whiskey. They are also cultivated as ornamental plants.

Meadow Fescue

Short, blunt grass. Often used as an ornamental grass in gardens and to feed horses and cattle.


Cultivated as a grain or vegetable in some countries and considered a weed in others. Pollen contributes to hay fever-like allergies. Used as an animal feed, in wall plaster, for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat bug bites and burns.

Mink Epithelium

Allergen attained from direct or indirect contact with the fur of the Mink, is a small mammal semi-aquatic carnivore related to the Weasel.

Mold I

Fungus that grows on organic matter. Common component of household and workplace dust. Usually found in damp and dark areas. When present in large quantities, can be hazardous to health. Pharmaceuticals produced from molds include penicillin, several statin cholesterol-lowering drugs and the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporine.

Mold II

The purpose of mold in the environment is to break down dead and decaying materials, which is why it appears on food. Mold growing on food will likely be green, fuzzy and will be on the surface and growing deep with the food. Common on foods such as bread and oranges. Molds are used in the making of some cheeses (blue, gorgonzola, Roquefort, brie, etc), soybean paste, soy sauce, sake, etc. Red rice yeast is a product of mold grown on rice and is common in Asian diets. It is also used as a dietary supplement.

Mouse Urine Protein

Causes allergies from mouse urine. Animal allergens are major components of house and animal laboratory dust.


Small to medium trees with large, juicy purple-black fruits. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea and to make breads, muffins, pies, jam, wine, etc. Mulberry leaves are the favorite food for silkworm moths.



Spring-flowering bulbs, including daffodils, amaryllis and jonquils. Flowers have trumpet-shaped centers, surrounded by a ring of petals. Used as cut flowers or in ornamental gardens. Used for medicinal purposes and on the skin to treat wounds, burns, strains and joint pain.

New Belgian Aster

A herbaceous perennial in the Asteraceae family that may grow 3 to 5 feet high. Its low growing habit and fall bloom works well as an edge plant in the front of borders, or in rock garden or butterfly gardens.


Petroleum based synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity and strength. Used to make fabrics, stockings, hair combs & brushes, mechanical parts, food packaging, fishing line, instrument strings, powder coating, etc.



A species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae. Commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, it is valued for its importance to insects and other wildlife. Numerous insects live on the leaves, buds, and in the acorns. The acorns form a valuable food resource for several small mammals and some birds.


Cereal grain. Used to make oatmeal, cereals, flour, noodles, baked goods, etc. and to feed livestock. Also used in skin and bath products.

Orchard Grass

Tall growing grass used for hay, pasture and food for horses and cattle.


Palm Trees

A kind of tree that grows in tropical regions and has a straight, tall trunk and many large leaves at the top of the trunk. The tree can provide shade, the coconuts can be used as containers, and the leaves can be woven and cutlivated for roofs, clothing or furniture.

Perennial Ryegrass

Cool-season grass known for its shine. Used for lawns, landscaping, pastures, hay, etc.


A stout seed- or fruit-eating bird with a small head, short legs, and a cooing voice, typically having gray and white plumage.

Pine (Pinus spp.)

Any of several yellowish or reddish parasitic or saprophytic herbs (genus Monotropa) of the wintergreen family resembling the Indian pipe. Can be used as a sealant, glue, and varnish. It is distilled into rosin, which is used to promote a better grip between objects, and oil of turpentine, which is used as a solvent and as a paint thinner.

Plantain Plant

Common weed with green oval to egg-shaped leaves that grow in a rosette.  Edible. Used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea. Leaves used on insect bites, stings, rashes, burns, cuts, etc. Sometimes confused with Ribwort Plantain.


Deciduous flowering plants native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. It is used for paper, timber, as an energy crop for biomass, in energy forestry systems, and also used as biofuel.


Also known as Ligustrum. Shrub of the olive family with heavily scented white flowers and poisonous black berries. Used for ornamental hedges, in horticulture and flower arrangements. Also used for medicinal purposes, skin products and herbal tea.

Parrot Feathers

Feathers from the bird, parrot or macaw, can cause allergies from direct or indirect contact. Bird allergens may be major components of house dust.

Pear Tree

An Old World tree having sweet gritty-textured juicy fruit; widely cultivated in many varieties. Pears are consumed fresh, canned, as juice, and dried and the juice can also be used in jellies and jams. Pear wood is one of the preferred materials in the manufacture of high-quality woodwind instruments and furniture, and was used for making the carved blocks for woodcuts. It is also used for wood carving, and as a firewood to produce aromatic smoke for smoking meat or tobacco.


Also known as Amaranth. Common weed distinguished by its red stems, especially near the roots. Flowers are small, green bristly spikes. Edible by humans, but toxic to livestock. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea and yellow and green dyes.

Pine, Scottish (Pinus sylvestris)

A coniferous tree, of Europe and Asia, having blue-green needle-like leaves and brown cones with a small prickle on each scale; a valuable timber tree. One of the strongest softwoods available, and is widely used in the construction industry and in joinery. It is used in the manufacture of telegraph poles, pit props, gate posts and fencing. The tree can also be tapped for resin to make turpentine.

Plane tree

Any tree of the genus Platanus, the buttonwood or sycamore of North America, having palmately lobed leaves and bark that sheds.


Also known as Evening Primrose. Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Edible. The oil (EPO) extracted from the seeds is used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, cosmetics, skin and hair products, etc.

Prosopis spp


Quack grass or Couch grass

A European grass that is naturalized throughout North America and spreads by creeping rhizomes. Also called couch grass, quitch, twitch and witchgrass. The leaves and roots are used to make medicine.



A burrowing, gregarious, plant-eating mammal with long ears, long hind legs, and a short tail. Related to the hare.


Common, soft-stemmed flowering plant that’s considered a weed. Produces an enormous amount of pollen that’s spread through the air. Known to cause seasonal allergies/hay fever.

Red Fescue

Cool season grass used in cool, shaded mountain sites, such as camps, resorts, cabins, etc. Used in landscaping for tough spots.


Flowering plant with large, colorful, fragrant blooms and sharp thorns.  Rose hips (fruit of the plant) and rose water for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, skin products, jelly, soup, syrup, nutritional supplements, etc. Rose petals used in herbal tea. Rose oil used for perfumes.


A tough elastic polymeric substance made from the latex of a tropical plant or synthetically. Used in hose, tires, and rollers ranging from domestic clothes wringers to printing presses; its elasticity makes it suitable for various kinds of shock absorbers and for specialized machinery mountings.

Rape (Rapeseed)

Flowering plant with bright-yellow blooms. Third largest source of vegetable oil in the world. Used as a cooking oil, livestock feed, pharmaceutical, biofuel, industrial lubricant, lamp fuel, in soap and margarine.


A rodent that resembles a large mouse, typically having a pointed snout and a long, sparsely haired tail. Sometimes responsible for transmitting diseases.


Flowering plant that hides in lawns and is considered a weed. Ribwort is distinguished from Plantain by its rosette of long, narrow leaves and prominent, parallel veins. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, wet dressing for wounds and swelling, remedy for rattlesnake bites, eye lotion, etc.


A Eurasian grass that is widely grown as forage and is used for both permanent and temporary lawns.



A shrubby aromatic North American plant of the daisy family. is used as a herbal medicine by Native Americans throughout the Intermountain West of North America, most notably as a smudging herb. It is also used for preventing infection in wounds, stopping internal bleeding, and treating headaches and colds.

Scotch Heather

Also known as Spring Torch. Small evergreen shrub with mauve-pink flower spikes. Ground cover or rock garden plant.

Sheep's Wool

Is the fiber that grows on the body of most sheep. Wool is widely used in clothing from knitwear such as socks and jumpers to cloth used for suits and costumes. It is used in the furniture trade both for making chair covers and for upholstery. Many of the better carpets produced traditionally and today are made from wool.


Is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. It is the species used as the main Christmas tree in several cities around the world.

Stinging Nettle

Wild plant with hollow stinging nettles and tiny, fuzzy-like white flowers.  Nettles produce a stinging sensation upon contact. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, cordial, beer and fabrics. Used in the past to deliberately sting the skin to provoke inflammation as a folk remedy for rheumatism.


Is a large annual forb of the genus Helianthus grown as a crop for its edible oil and edible fruits. This sunflower species is also used as wild bird food, as livestock forage, in some industrial applications, and as an ornamental in domestic gardens.


A sedge with spiny-edged leaves. It is a large sedge plant that thrives on water and can be found on riverbanks in the southern United States, especially in Florida. Scientists consider sawgrass to be one of the oldest plant species, and the plant has tough, edged leaves that can weather year-round flooded conditions of the harsher swamps.


Is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, and one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae in the subfamily Sequoioideae. It lives in California’s Sierra Nevada mountains


Ancient grain widely recognized for being hardier and more nutritious than modern wheat. Currently, a specialty crop used for making bread, pasta, beer and vodka.

St. Augustine Grass

St. Augustine grass is a warm-season lawn grass that is popular for cultivation in tropical and subtropical regions.

Sweet Vernal Grass

Fragrant grass used for lawns and house plants. Also found in pastures and meadows. Used for dried flower arrangements and potpourri. Used for medicinal purposes, in brandies and as a flavoring agent in foods.



Is an invasive shrub or small tree that is found across the American West. Tamarisk favors sites that are inhospitable to native streamside plants because of high salinity, low water availability, and altered streamflow regimes created by dams.

Tansy Ragwort

Flowering plant with clusters of yellow flowers. Classed as a prohibited noxious weed because if eaten, it can be deadly to humans and livestock. The pollen is also toxic. Used for medicinal purposes

Timothy Grass

Also known as Common Cat’s Tail. A grass with stiff stems and cylindrical flower spikes that resemble a cat’s tail. Timothy hay used to feed horses and domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.


Flowering plant with large, showy, brightly colored (red, pink, yellow or white) blooms. The Netherlands are the world’s main producer of tulip plants. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, skin products, perfumes, poultice for insect bites and stings, burns and rashes.


Also known as Milk Thistle. Flowering plant related to daisies and ragweed. The plants have sharp prickles all over. Valued by bumblebees for their high nectar production. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, herbal tea, etc.


Plant that contains nicotine, a psychoactive (mind-altering) drug that speeds up activity in the central nervous system but has relaxing effects too. Found in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco and snuff.


Is an annual or biennial species of grass in the true grass family. It is also known in North America as bull grass, soft cheat, and soft chess. It is the most common species of Bromus in Britain, where it can be found on roadsides, waste ground, meadows, and cultivated land.



Woven fabric with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctively smooth, soft feel. Most commonly made of a mix of rayon and silk. The most expensive type is made entirely of silk.


A herbaceous plant of temperate regions, typically having purple, blue, or white five-petaled flowers, one of which forms a landing pad for pollinating insects. Most species are found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere; however, some are also found in widely divergent areas such as Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes

Velvet Grass

Also known as Yorkshire fog. Tall grass that has a velvety feel when touched. Grows as a weed in damp places such as stream banks and drainage areas. It is considered an invasive species.



Flowering plants with fragrant yellow to orange flowers borne on long spikes. Named for their habit of growing from chinks in walls. Found on prairies, sand hills and open woods. Used for medicinal purposes, aromatherapy and fragrance.

Water Reed

Tall, glass-like plants of wetlands. Used by many cultures as thatching material for roofs and in construction of buildings.

Wild Oat

An Old World grass that is related to the cultivated oat and is commonly found as a weed of other cereal plants.


A tree or shrub of temperate climates that typically has narrow leaves, bears catkins, and grows near water. Its pliant branches yield osiers for basketry, and its wood has various uses.


Textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, hide and fur from bison, angora from rabbits, etc. Used to make clothing, coats, blankets, rugs, carpet, cloth diaper covers, hats, etc.



The large wrinkled edible seed of a deciduous tree, consisting of two halves contained within a hard shell which is enclosed in a green fruit. the tall tree that produces the walnut, with compound leaves and valuable ornamental timber that is used chiefly in cabinetmaking and gunstocks.


Also known as yellowjackets and hornets. Flying insects that sting. The vast majority play no role in pollination because they don’t have fur-like covering and special body part for pollen storage. They play a vital role in protecting gardens and crops by controlling pests.


Major cereal grain grown globally. Ranked 3rd among grains in quantity produced, behind maize (corn) and rice. Wheat is used in flour, bread, cereals, pasta, etc. Can also be found in flavoring, caramel color, dextrin, food starch, MSG, sauces, vegetable gum, etc.

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

Flowering plant with small yellow blooms used as an ornamental plant. Grows naturally on rocky slopes, fences, and roadsides. Used for medicinal purposes, in spirits and wines, flavoring, bitters, vermouth, etc.

Zoysia Grass

Warm season grass that forms a very dense carpet. Used for lawns, lawn games and entertaining. Zoysia lawns are among the first to green up in spring.